SEARCH | HOME| Collection Guides | Primary Documents | Historical Features | Doing Research | Contact us

University Archives and Records Center
University of Pennsylvania

Women at Penn: Timeline of Pioneers and Achievements

compiled and edited by Mark Frazier Lloyd
July 2001, last updated 2004

text only version (illustrated version for the web also available)

More on Women at Penn

1740

The English evangelical preacher, George Whitefield, and a group of working class Philadelphians established an educational trust fund for support of a charity school open to both boys and girls.

1749

Benjamin Franklin and Penn's first Trustees took control of the Charity School trust and completed construction of the "New Building" at Fourth and Arch Streets.

1751

The Academy of Philadelphia and the Charity School both opened on the Fourth and Arch Streets campus. The Academy, designed as a college preparatory school, did not admit women. The Charity School, faithful to its 1740 trust, admitted boys in 1751 and made preparations to admit girls.

1753

The Trustees appointed Frances Holwell the first Mistress of Girls in the Charity School and opened the school to girls. 212 years later, during the University's Homecoming Weekend of October 1965, the Trustees dedicated Holwell House, one of the four houses in the Robert C. Hill Residence Hall, in her honor. Ms. Holwell served the School for seven years, concluding her work in 1760.

1755

The College was chartered, but did not admit women.

1761

Mary Middleton became Mistress of Girls in the Charity School. Ms. Middleton served the School for just one year, concluding her work in 1762.

1762

Sarah Gardiner became Mistress of Girls in the Charity School. Mrs. Gardiner served the School for seventeen years, concluding her work in 1779.

1765

The School of Medicine was founded, but did not admit women.

1779

The University was chartered by the Revolutionary government of Pennsylvania, but did not admit women.

In September, Mrs. John Heffernan became Mistress of Girls in the Charity School. Mrs. Heffernan served the school for three years, concluding her work in July 1782.

1782

Martha Davis became Mistress of Girls in the Charity School. Mrs. Davis served the School for nine years, concluding her work in July 1791.

1791

Mary Robinson came Mistress of Girls in the Charity School. Mrs. Robinson served the School for five years, concluding her work in the summer of 1796.

1796

Mary Burke became Mistress of Girls in the Charity School. Ms. Burke served the School for three and one half years, concluding her work in February 1800.

1800

Mary Graves became Mistress of Girls in the Charity School. Ms. Graves served the School for fourteen years, concluding her work there in November 1814.

1802

The College and School of Medicine moved to a new campus on the west side of Ninth Street, between Market and Chestnut Streets. The Academy and Charity School remained in the old buildings at Fourth and Arch Streets.

1815

Jane Knowles became Mistress of Girls in the Charity School. Ms. Knowles made her work at the Charity School her career, serving as the principal teacher until the School was temporarily closed in 1845. The Charity School remained closed for an entire academic year while a new building was constructed.

1846

In June, the Trustees' Committee on the Charity Schools of the University reported, "that the new building recently erected on the rear of the lot on the West side of Delaware 4th St. below Arch St. contains three well sized rooms, with a small room attached to each, intended for a clothes' room, and which can be used (tho' not very comfortably at all times) as a class-room for some fifteen scholars. ... There is space in each [large] room for about 75 pupils. The Committee proposes two teachers for each school, a principal and [an] assistant. ... The Girls' school to be a Primary School, similar to the Public Primary Schools in its course of instruction. This course would embrace Spelling & Reading, Mental & Written Arithmetic, Writing and Drawing on Slates, Elementary Geography, Lessons on Common things illustrated as far as practicable by the objects themselves."

In accordance with the Committee's report, the Trustees reorganized the Charity Schools of the University and directed that both a Boys' School and a Girls' Primary School be re-opened, each with a Principal Teacher and an Assistant Teacher.

In September, the Trustees elected Josephine Bedlock to the academic administrator position of Principal Teacher in the Girls' Charity School. Ms. Bedlock had taught for eight years at the South Eastern Grammar School for Boys in Philadelphia and in the last five of those eight she had served as First Assistant. She enjoyed the unqualified recommendations of its principal and directors. She had also received advanced instruction in teaching at Philadelphia's Central High School. Ms. Bedlock made her work at the Charity School her career, serving as Principal Teacher until the School closed in 1877.

Also in September, the Trustees elected Mary Eliza Pancoast to the academic position of Assistant Teacher in the Girls' Charity School. Ms. Pancoast had taught for five years in the Philadelphia public schools, the last two of which at Frankford Grammar School. Like Josephine Bedlock, she had received advanced instruction in teaching at Central High School and enjoyed the unqualified recommendation of John S. Hart, Principal of the High School. Mary Eliza Pancoast served as a teacher in the Charity School until 1853.

Also in September, the Trustees elected Joseph McKinley to the position of Principal Teacher in the Boys' Charity School and elected Margaretta Wallace to the position of Assistant Teacher. Ms. Wallace was serving as Principal of the Christ Church Parish School and had previously taught for four years at the Lombard Street (Public) Grammar School. She enjoyed the unqualified recommendations of the principal and the directors of the Lombard Street School. Ms. Wallace, like Josephine Bedlock, made her work at the Charity School her career, serving as a Teacher until the school closed in 1877.

1850

The Law School was founded, but did not admit women.

1852

The School of Mines, Arts, and Manufactures - predecessor to the School of Engineering and Applied Science - was founded, but did not admit women.

1854

Marion Bedlock was named a Teacher of the Female Charity School and thereby joined her older sister Josephine on the faculty of the Charity School. Like her sister, Marion continued on the faculty until the Trustees closed the School in 1877.

1857

The Academy was closed and the Charity School alone continued at the old Fourth and Arch Streets campus.

1865

The Auxiliary School of Medicine was founded, but did not admit women.

1872

The College and the Schools of Medicine, Law, Engineering, and Auxiliary Medicine moved to the new West Philadelphia campus.

1874

In July, the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania opened and admitted its first patients. A Board of Managers of the Hospital had been established in February of that year to supervise the administration of the Hospital. In May, the Board of Managers had appointed a Superintendent, a Matron, and an Apothecary as the senior administrators of the Hospital. Hannah A. Camp ("Mrs. H.A. Camp") was appointed Matron, with responsibilities for all food service, housekeeping, and nursing services in the Hospital. She was the first woman to hold an administrative position at Penn. She served the University as Matron of the Hospital until 1879, when she submitted her resignation.

1875

At the request of the Trustees of the University, the Board of Managers of the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania established a Board of Women Visitors, the purpose of which was "to assist the Managers in the administration of the housekeeping and nursing of the Hospital." The first members of the Board of Women Visitors were Anna Blanchard, Mary Todhunter Sill Clark ("Mrs. Clarence H. Clark"), Virginia Earp ("Miss Earp"), Mrs. Ebbs, Mary Klett Gibson ("Mrs. Henry C. Gibson"), Lillie H. Kay, Sarah Longacre Keen ("Mrs. John F. Keen"), Ellen Hansell Page ("Mrs. Joseph Page"), Frances Sergeant Perry Pepper ("Mrs. William Pepper"), Delia Saunders Rogers ("Mrs. Robert Empie Rogers"), Lydia Crane Reyburn ("Mrs. William Stuart Reyburn"), Anna Dike Riddle Scott ("Mrs. Thomas A. Scott"), Ellen Holmes Verner Simpson ("Mrs. Matthew Simpson"), Maria R. Tevis Towne ("Mrs. John Henry Towne"), Anna H. Wilstach ("Mrs. [Wm.] Wilstach"), Annis Lee Furness Wister ("Mrs. Caspar Wister"), and Juliana Wood. In October 1875, the Board of Managers of the Hospital authorized the Board of Women Visitors to adopt by-laws and other rules for their own governance. The Board elected Caroline W. Paul the first President of the Board, Juliana Wood the first Secretary, and Frances Sergeant Perry Pepper the first Treasurer. Through the Board of Women Visitors at the Hospital, women fulfilled the responsibilities of a board of overseers for the first time in Penn's history.

In May, the Trustees elected Hugh Alexander Clarke to the faculty position of Professor of the Science of Music.

In October, the Catalogue of the University announced, for the first time, "Lectures on the Science of Music are delivered twice a week by Professor [Hugh A.] Clarke to such persons, members of the University and others, male and female, as may desire systematic instruction on this subject." It is unfortunate that the University did not register the names of Professor Clarke's students until the Department of Music was established and opened to enrollment at the beginning of the 1877-78 academic year.

1876

On 13 October, two women - Gertrude Klein Peirce and Anna Lockhart Flanigen - enrolled as special students in the Towne Scientific School (the present-day School of Engineering and Applied Science). Ms. Flanigen was twenty-four years old and had been a student at the Women's Medical College of Pennsylvania (but apparently not a graduate of that school). Ms. Peirce was seventeen years old and had also been a student in the Women's Medical College. They were the first women to be admitted to collegiate courses customarily leading to a University degree. As special students, however, Peirce and Flanigen were not eligible for a degree. Both women took courses in the Department of Chemistry.

In December, the Trustees established the Department of Music and adopted the academic requirements for the Bachelor of Music degree. This was the first academic program at Penn to admit women from the date of its establishment. Six women - A.R. Brown, Eleanor S. Cooper, Julia Catherine Foulke, E.H. Miller, M.H. Sinclair, and M. Wetherill - enrolled in 1877-78 as regular students in the two-year course leading to a Certificate of Proficiency in Music. None of these women earned the Certificate of Proficiency, but they were nevertheless a distinguished group. "A.R. Brown" was Anna Robertson Brown, who, in 1892, would become the first woman to earn Penn's Ph.D. "E.H. Miller" was the daughter of Elihu Spencer Miller, Professor of Law and Dean of the Law School. "Julia Catherine Foulke" later married a graduate of the College, Henry Carvill Lewis, A.B. 1873.

1877

In June, the Trustees closed the Charity School, stating that the public schools of Philadelphia had progressed to the point where they provided educational facilities and teaching comparable to that previously available to the poor only through charity schools. The Trustees re-directed the income of the Charity School trust to collegiate scholarships for young men and to instruction for "female students" so far as the Provost thought appropriate at the University.

On 14 September, Mary Elfreth Allen, M.D., an 1876 graduate of the Women's Medical College of Pennsylvania, became the third woman to enroll as a special student in the School of Engineering. Dr. Allen was twenty-seven years old and lived at 524 Pine Street, Philadelphia.

Also in September, at their regular stated meeting, the Trustees adopted the following preamble and five-part resolution:

"Whereas, the Board, at its meeting June 5th 1877 directed that the Charity Schools be closed, and that the funds by which they were supported should be hereafter applied to maintain gratuitous instruction for children, male and female, in needy circumstances in the Department of Arts [the present-day College] and the Towne Scientific School [the present-day School of Engineering and Applied Science],

"Resolved, That the [Trustees] Committees on said Departments be authorized, on the recommendation of the Provost, to admit into the Department of Arts and the Towne Scientific School such a number of male children in indigent circumstances as they may deem expedient, such children having first passed the prescribed examination for admission and fulfilled the other conditions for entrance therein;

"Resolved, That said Committees be authorized on the recommendation of the Provost to admit such a number of female children in indigent circumstances as they may deem expedient to the lectures on History and to the instruction by lecture and in the laboratories in the Departments of Chemistry and Physics;

"Resolved, That any other females desiring to attend the instruction in the aforesaid subjects may do so on the payment of a fee to be settled by the Committees, provided that said females in the opinion of the Provost are sufficiently advanced to profit by the instruction;

"Resolved, That any female attending said course of instruction may present herself at the end thereof for examination therein and if said examination is satisfactory shall receive from the authorities of the University a certificate thereof;

"Resolved, That the Provost be requested to organize a plan of instruction upon the aforesaid principles and to give public notice of the same."

In October, the annual Catalogue of the University announced, for the first time,

"Women are now admitted, in the Towne Scientific School, to the Lectures on Modern History, given to the Seniors, to those on General Chemistry, given to the Freshmen and Sophomores, to those on Physics, given to the Sophomores, and to the instruction in Analytical Chemistry, given to Juniors and Seniors in one of the Laboratories."

1878

In February, the Provost reported to the Trustees that "several ladies were in attendance" at the lectures on Modern History given to the Senior Class in the College.

On 22 March, Mary Thorn Lewis became the fourth (and final) woman to enroll as a special student in the School of Engineering. She was twenty-four years old and lived at 2224 Green Street, Philadelphia.

In April, the Trustees adopted a resolution which granted the request of the faculty of the Auxiliary School of Medicine to admit women. The Trustees noted, however, that the women admitted were "subject to the same regulation as at present exists permitting women under certain conditions to become special students in the Towne Scientific School (the present-day School of Engineering and Applied Science)."

At the Commencement held on 14 June, the University granted Certificates of Proficiency in Science to Anna Lockhart Flanigen and Gertrude Klein Peirce. They were the first women to complete a collegiate course of study at Penn.

The School of Dental Medicine was founded, but did not admit women.

1879

The Trustees announced that "persons of both sexes are now admitted" to the classes in English, Classics, History, Social Science, and Speculative Philosophy (or "Darwinism"), in the College; to the classes in General Chemistry, Physics, and Analytical Chemistry, in the School of Engineering; and to all classes in the Department of Music.

The Trustees simultaneously announced the establishment of the Bloomfield Moore Fund, the income of which was dedicated to the education of women who planned to become teachers. The Fund was sufficient to support as many as six women in any one year and those who received the scholarship were free to enroll in any of the classes declared open to "both sexes." The Bloomfield Moore Fund was the first endowment for women's education at Penn.

1880

In the spring semester, the School of Auxiliary Medicine admitted its first women students, Mary Alice Bennett, M.D., of Wrentham, Massachusetts, and Anna H. Johnson, of Orange, New Jersey.

At the Commencement held on 15 June, the University granted the degree of Doctor of Philosophy to Mary Alice Bennett, M.D. for her successful completion of the post-graduate course in medical science offered by the School of Auxiliary Medicine. Dr. Bennett, an 1876 graduate of the Women's Medical College of Pennsylvania, thereby became the first woman to earn a degree at the University of Pennsylvania. She was among the last students, however, to take the Ph.D. from the School of Auxiliary Medicine. The School's two-year course was far less demanding than the modern Ph.D. and beginning in 1882, the Trustees substituted the degree of Bachelor of Sciences Auxiliary to Medicine for the Ph.D. In that same year, Martha Paul Hughes, M.D., an 1880 graduate of the School of Medicine at the University of Michigan, was a member of the first class to earn the B.S. Auxiliary to Medicine degree at Penn. In 1898 the School of Auxiliary Medicine was closed.

Also at the Commencement of 1880, the University granted a Certificate of Proficiency in Science to Mary Thorn Lewis.

1881

The Law School admitted its first woman student, Caroline Burnham Kilgore, M.D., of Philadelphia.

The Wharton School was founded, but did not admit women.

1882

The Graduate School of Arts and Sciences was founded and was the first to admit women at its establishment to courses leading to a degree.

In October, the faculty of the College recommended the admission to the College of Ms. Ida C. Craddock. The faculty noted that she had applied for admission to the first-year year class of the College and had passed the required examination. Frederick Fraley, chairman of the committee of the Trustees charged with oversight of the College, presented a ten-part plan for establishing a "women's section" in the College. His proposal was rejected and Ms. Craddock denied admission. Rt. Rev. William Bacon Stevens, Bishop of the Episcopal Diocese of Pennsylvania and also one of the Trustees of the University, then introduced a resolution explicitly prohibiting the admission of women to the College. The Trustees adopted the Bishop's resolution, but also adopted a resolution offered by another Trustee, George Whitney, "that the Trustees will organize a separate Collegiate Department for the complete education of women, so soon as funds are received sufficient to meet the expense thereof." The Trustees thereby committed themselves to establishing a college for women at Penn, but more than fifty years passed before the College for Women matriculated its first students.

1883

At the Commencement held on 15 June, the University granted the degree of Bachelor of Laws to Caroline Burnham Kilgore. She became the first woman admitted to the practice of law before the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania. Eighty-two years after her graduation, during the University's Homecoming Weekend of October 1965, the Trustees dedicated Kilgore House, one of the four houses in the Robert C. Hill Residence Hall, in her honor.

Also at the Commencement of 1883, the University granted Certificates of Proficiency in Music to four women: Helen Archibald Clarke, Marie Elisabeth Jefferys, Katherine E. Smaltz, and Annie V. Spooner. They were the first students to complete the two-year course leading to the Certificate of Proficiency. Helen Clarke was the daughter of the Professor of Music, Hugh Archibald Clarke. She became a distinguished author and poet and lived in Boston, Massachusetts. Marie Jefferys also became a well-known author. She married Henry Lee Hobart and lived in New York City. Katherine Smaltz was active in the Philomusician and Matinee Musical Clubs of Philadelphia. She married Charles Mortimooe and lived in West Philadelphia.

1884

The School of Veterinary Medicine was founded, but did not admit women.

The Department of Biology was founded and was the third academic program at Penn to admit women from its inception, though its course did not lead to a degree. Its purpose was "to provide a course of instruction in Biology for students of both sexes who are preparing to study medicine, or who desire systematic training in this subject." A Certificate of Proficiency was granted to those who successfully completed the two-year course.

1885

The Board of Managers of the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania voted to establish a training school for nurses. In May 1886, the Board appointed Charlotte Marie Hugo, a native of Devonshire, England, the first Superintendent of Nurses and Directress of Nurses in the Training School. She was the first woman to serve as an officer of instruction at the University of Pennsylvania and the first woman to serve as an academic administrator at Penn. Prior to accepting her appointment at Penn, Ms. Hugo had trained at the Nightingale School connected with St. Thomas' Hospital in London. The Board of Managers of the Hospital simultaneously elected her Superintendent of the Hospital. She was the first woman to serve as Superintendent of the Hospital and the first woman to serve as chief administrative officer in any school, resource center, or affiliate of the University. All responsibilities of all three positions were perhaps too much to ask of just one person, for Ms. Hugo submitted her resignation after just one and one-half years and left the University.

1886

At the Commencement held on 15 June, the University awarded the Certificate of Proficiency in Biology to Ida Augusta Keller. She was the first woman to complete the two-year course in Biology. Four years later she earned the Ph.D. degree from the University of Zurich in Switzerland.

In December, the University Hospital Training School for Nurses was founded and was the fourth academic program at Penn to admit women from its inception, though its course did not lead to a degree. The Board of Managers of the Hospital also opened the Wood Memorial Nurses Home, on the southwest corner of Thirty-fourth and Spruce Streets. It was the first residence hall for women at Penn.

1887

In June, the University Hospital Training School awarded its first diploma in nursing to Mary J. Burns. She was the first person to complete the course in nurses' training. One year later there were nine members of the graduating class, all women, one of whom, Elizabeth Weston, was a Native American.

1888

The Department of Biology appointed Emily Lovira Gregory, A.B., Ph.D., to the faculty position of teaching fellow. She thereby became the first woman member of the faculty at Penn. Born in Portage, New York, Emily Lovira Gregory taught school until, at the age of thirty-five, she entered Cornell University, where she earned the degree of bachelor of arts in 1881. She then travelled to Europe, where she earned a doctorate in botany at the University of Zurich. After her year at Penn, she was appointed lecturer at Barnard College in New York City. At Barnard she played an active part in championing the cause of graduate students and encouraging laboratory assistants by paying them out of her own funds. She died at the age of fifty-six, two years after becoming the first woman to win promotion to a full professorship at Barnard.

1889

In June, the Trustees authorized the election of women to the Board of Managers of the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania and elected three women Managers, Ellen Nixon Waln Harrison ("Mrs. Charles C. Harrison"), Sarah Van Syckel Heberton ("Mrs. G. Craig Heberton"), and Sarah Wharton Barker ("Mrs. Abraham Barker"). They were the first women to serve the University as directors or managers of a school or center.

In October, the Senior Class in the College organized a protest against co-education and presented a petition to the Trustees signed by virtually all the members of the class.

In November, however, the Trustees accepted the offer of Joseph M. Bennett to endow a college for women.

1890

In January, the Trustees announced that they had met with "a number of the foremost women educators of Pennsylvania" and formulated a proposal for a Graduate Department of Women. The proposal was formally adopted and referred to the Committee on [the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences] and the Committee on Ways and Means for implementation.

In March, six women students established at Penn the Beta Alpha chapter of the national Kappa Kappa Gamma sorority. It was the first sorority at Penn. The founders were Josephine Feger Ancona (Cert. of Prof. in Biol., 1891; B.S. in Biol., 1895), Rose Ancona (Cert. of Prof. in Biol., 1891), Martha Bunting (Cert. of Prof. in Biol., 1890), Kathleen Carter (Cert. of Prof. in Biol., 1890; Ph.D. in Psychology, 1896; after her marriage, "Mrs. John Percy Moore"), Jessie Lippincott Colson (Cert. of Prof. in Biol., 1889), and Lois Meiss Otis (student in the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, 1889-90 and 1890-91, but did not earn a degree). Martha Bunting was the first President. Kappa Kappa Gamma occupied 3323 Walnut Street from 1921 to 1959, when the house was demolished to make way for Hill House. Kappa Kappa Gamma occupied 225 South 39th Street from 1959 to 1970. This was followed by rented space in two fraternity houses, Delta Psi and Delta Phi, before the Beta Alpha chapter was disbanded in 1975.

In April, the Trustees adopted a resolution which created a Board of Managers for the Graduate Department of Women, to be composed of seven Trustees and five women. The Trustees elected Agnes Irwin, Mary McMurtrie, and Ida Wood to the Board of Managers.

In June, the Provost nominated Mary H. Rodgers Biddle ("Mrs. George Biddle"), Frances E. Bennett, Mary Burnham, and Anna Wright Baird ("Mrs. Matthew Baird") to the Board of Managers of the Graduate Department of Women. The Trustees "confirmed" the nominations, but Biddle and Burnham may not have agreed to accept their respective nominations as their names did not appear among the Managers of 1891.

At the Commencement held on 5 June, the University granted the Certificate of Proficiency in Music to Ida Elizabeth Bowser. She was the first African American woman to enroll in classes at Penn.

The University opened the second women's residence hall - this one for women in the Graduate School only - in two houses at the southeast corner of Thirty-Fourth and Walnut Streets. These properties had been donated to Penn by Joseph M. Bennett as part of his endowment of a College for Women.

In December, the Trustees formally established the Graduate Department for Women by adopting a resolution assigning the entire faculty of the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences to secondary appointments in the Graduate Department for Women.

1891

The Trustees published an announcement stating that the Graduate Department for Women was founded "for the purpose of affording to women the opportunities for advanced study which are provided by the Faculty of [the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences]. It is under the direct control of a Board of Managers appointed by the Trustees, and has accommodations for residence and study in a Hall presented by Joseph M. Bennett, of Philadelphia, nearly opposite to the Library and convenient to the class-rooms and laboratories of the several departments in which its students receive their instruction." Anna Wright Baird ("Mrs. Matthew Baird"), Frances E. Bennett, Mary Pepper Norris Cochran ("Mrs. Travis Cochran"), Deborah Brown Coleman ("Mrs. George Dawson Coleman"), Agnes Irwin (Hon. Litt.D., 1898), Mary McMurtrie, and Ida Wood were members of the first Board of Managers and formed a voting majority of the Board.

In November, the Trustees elected Ida Wood the first Secretary of the Graduate Department for Women, but "without salary." She resigned her position in February 1893, less than a year and a half later.

1892

In May, the Trustees enlarged the Board of Managers of the Graduate Department for Women to twenty and elected Isabel Armstrong Lippincott ("Mrs. J. Dundas Lippincott"), Anna S. Biddle Blair ("Mrs. Andrew A. Blair"), and Eleanor Elkins Widener ("Mrs. George D. Widener") to the Board.

Also in May, the University held a formal "Opening of the Graduate Department for Women." M. Carey Thomas, President of Bryn Mawr College, was the principal speaker and she described in detail the advancement of women in higher education in the United States. She noted that 165 colleges in the American West were "conferring on women regular degrees in arts and sciences;" that co-education became the norm in the West after 1870, when the University of Michigan opened its admissions to women; and that the "two new Western universities, that promise to be the most richly endowed in all America, the Leland Stanford University in California, and the University of Chicago, make no distinction between men and women." She noted also that in the American South there were "thirty-nine co-educational colleges and universities," including the State universities of Kentucky, Mississippi, and Texas. She noted also that in New England and the Mid-Atlantic, "within the last few months the great University of Yale has admitted [women] to all its graduate instruction, its second degrees, and its fellowships; … Brown, has this year admitted women to its examinations, and, as I have heard from the president, in a letter received last week, will next year admit women to all its graduate work; … Boston University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology are open to women … Cornell is open to women; the degrees of Columbia, and to all intents and purposes its graduate department, are open to women; … [and] in the East, where there is a choice, we find in the four best known colleges for women, in Vassar, Wellesley, Smith, and Bryn Mawr, no less than two thousand women." The program was concluded by Provost William Pepper, who announced that a total of eight graduate fellowships were fully endowed in the Graduate Department for Women and would be offered to prospective students in the 1892-93 academic year.

The Trustees established five undergraduate professional degree programs in the School of Engineering: Bachelor of Science in Architecture, Bachelor of Science in Chemistry, Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering, Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering, and Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering. Women were not admitted to these courses.

At the Commencement held on 15 June, the University granted the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in English to Anna Robertson Brown. She was the first woman to earn the modern Ph.D. at Penn and the first person to earn Penn's Ph.D. in English. After taking her doctorate, she married Samuel McCune Lindsay, Professor of Sociology at Penn, and she began a career of authoring religious works, publishing more than a dozen monographs over a thirty-year period. She also served as a Trustee of her college, Wellesley, from 1906 to 1918.

1893

In February, the Nurses Alumnae Association of the Training School for Nurses was founded. Its purpose was "to advance the best interests of the nurses, to promote good fellowship among graduates, and to establish a fund for their benefit in times of sickness and death." The first officers were: Jane A. Delano (Assistant Superintendent and Instructor in the Nurses' Training School), President; Laura Hamer (Class of 1892) and Rose L. Newton (Class of 1889; after her marriage, "Mrs. James B. Sturdevant"), Vice Presidents; Anna J. Weaver (Class of 1891), Secretary; and Catherine E. Damm (Class of 1893; after her marriage, "Mrs. J. H. Kingsbury"), Treasurer.

The University Hospital Training School for Nurses extended its course from two years to three. The three-year course remained the standard until the School was closed in 1978.

At the Commencement held on 16 June, the University granted the degree of Master of Arts to Alice Minerva Atkinson and Eleanor Elizabeth Tibbetts. They were the first women to earn the modern M.A. at Penn. Both continued their graduate studies at Penn. In 1894 Tibbetts became the first woman to earn Penn's Ph.D. in Philosophy and in 1895 Atkinson became the first woman to earn Penn's Ph.D. in Latin.

1894

In February, the Trustees elected seven women--Anna Wright Baird ("Mrs. Matthew Baird"), Mrs. Rudolph Ellis, Mrs. E.A.P. de Guerrero, Emily Gardiner Leland Harrison ("Mrs. John Harrison"), Alice Potter Lippincott ("Mrs. J. Dundas Lippincott"), Sara Yorke Stevenson ("Mrs. Cornelius Stevenson"), and Sabine d'Invilliers Weightman ("Mrs. William Weightman, Jr.")--to the Board of Managers of the University Museum. These seven were the first women to serve the University as overseers of the University Museum.

At the Commencement held on 5 June, Sara Yorke Stevenson became the first woman recipient of an honorary degree. The Trustees granted her the honorary degree of Doctor of Science in recognition of her founding role in the University Museum. She was the first woman to be awarded the Sc.D. degree at Penn.

In July the Trustees established a four-year course, leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science in Biology and open to men and women "on equal terms." This was the first, modern, full-time, four-year, undergraduate course open to women.

In September Fuji Tsukamoto enrolled in the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences and declared Botany, Zoology, and Chemistry her fields of study. A graduate of Wilson College in Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, Fuji Tsukamoto was the first Asian American woman to matriculate at Penn.

In October the Courses for Teachers program was founded under the direction of Professor Martin G. Brumbaugh and became the sixth academic program at Penn to admit women from its inception. Described by the Trustees as "the work in Pedagogy at the University," its purpose was to "meet the needs of teachers who wish to pursue work in one or more subjects." It may properly be seen as the predecessor to the School of Education. In order to accommodate teachers already actively employed, the classes were held on Friday evenings and Saturday mornings only. A Certificate of Proficiency was granted to those who successfully completed the course.

Also in October, the Provost reported to the Trustees that the Board of Managers of the Graduate Department for Women had been reduced in number by four: Deborah Brown Coleman ("Mrs. George Dawson Coleman") and Isabel Armstrong Lippincott ("Mrs. J. Dundas Lippincott") had died and Agnes Irwin and Ida Wood had moved away from Philadelphia and resigned from the Board. The Provost nominated "Mrs. John Markoe," in Agnes Irwin's place and the Trustees "duly confirmed" the nomination.

In December the Trustees established a four-year course at the Wharton School leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science in Economics. Women were not admitted to this course.

1895

At the Commencement held on 11 June, the University granted the degree of Bachelor of Science in Biology to Josephine Feger Ancona (Cert. of Prof. in Biol., 1891). She was the first woman to complete the four-year course in Biology and the first woman to earn the undergraduate bachelor's degree at Penn.

1896

Martha Paul Hughes Cannon, M.D., who in 1882 had earned Penn's degree of Bachelor of Sciences Auxiliary to Medicine, was elected to the first of two terms in the Utah State Senate. Dr. Cannon was a native of Wales, whose family had settled in Salt Lake City in 1862, in what was then the U.S. territory of Utah. After earning the M.D. degree at the University of Michigan in 1880 and the B.S. Auxiliary to Medicine degree at Penn, she returned to Utah, practiced medicine, and married Angus M. Cannon. In 1896 she was elected to Utah's first state legislature and was re-elected four years later. She was the first woman in the United States to be elected a State Senator.

1897

In May, William A. Lamberton, Dean of the College Faculty, reported to the Trustees that women were attending both the Biological and Interior Decoration courses and were requesting admission to the "Chemical Courses and [other] courses."

At the Commencement held on 9 June, the University granted the degree of Bachelor of Music to Elsa West Rulon (Cert. of Prof. in Music, 1895). She was the first woman to complete the extraordinary requirement for the bachelor's degree: "an original composition in the form of a cantata for solos and chorus, with an accompaniment of at least a quintette of string instruments … of such a length as to require at least twenty minutes for its performance."

In October, the Trustees elected Dr. Fanny Rysam Mulford Hitchcock to the Board of Managers of the Graduate Department for Women. She succeeded "Mrs. John Markoe," who had resigned from the Board. Dr. Hitchcock had first enrolled at Penn in the fall of 1890 as an undergraduate student in Biology. When she returned in the fall of 1891, however, she matriculated as a student in Graduate School of Arts and Sciences. After three years of graduate studies, she earned Penn's Doctor of Philosophy degree in Chemistry in 1894, the first woman to take in the Ph.D. in Chemistry.

In December, the Trustees re-organized the Graduate Department of Women to provide for a Board of Managers of twenty-four members, to be elected by the Trustees in April of each year for one-year terms; an Executive Committee of five members, to be appointed by the Provost in May of each year for one-year terms; a "Director [who] shall always be a woman," to be elected by the Trustees in April of each year for a one-year term beginning 1 September of that same year. The Board of Managers was granted control of the administration of "Bennett House," at 3448-50 Walnut Street, with authority over its finances, including its trust funds. The Director was responsible for the student life of all women students. She was also an ex-officio member of the Board of Managers and Chairman of the Executive Committee.

1898

Fanny Rysam Mulford Hitchcock (Ph.D., 1894) was the first Director of Women Students and had an office in Room 102 of College Hall.

In May, Joseph Bennett gave to the University "four houses adjoining Bennett Hall, to be used for the higher education of women." Bennett Hall, his original gift in 1890, consisted of two four-story houses at 3448 and 3450 Walnut Street. This additional gift consisted of 3440, 3442, 3444, and 3446 Walnut Street. Together they included all the ground now covered by the present-day Bennett Hall.

At the Commencement held on 8 June, Agnes Irwin became the second woman recipient of an honorary degree at Penn and the first to be celebrated for advancing the cause of women in higher education. The Trustees granted her the honorary degree of Doctor of Letters (Hon. Litt.D.) in recognition of her accomplishments as the founder of a distinguished college preparatory school for women in Philadelphia and since 1894, Dean of Radcliffe College in Cambridge, Massachusetts. She was the first woman to be awarded the honorary Litt.D. degree at Penn.

1899

In May, the Trustees re-organized the Graduate Department for Women and elected Frances E. Bennett, Bertha Dechert, Gertrude Stevenson McMaster ("Mrs. John B. McMaster"), Mary McMurtrie, and "Mrs. Felix E. Schelling" to the Board of Managers of the Department.

Also in May, the Trustees authorized the expenditure of $1,000 for the repair and maintenance of Bennett Hall at 3448-50 Walnut Street.

Also in May, the Trustees accepted the offer of Frances Hitchcock, one of the Managers of the Graduate Department for Women, to provide part of the building at 3903 Locust Street to the University as a "temporary gymnasium for women," at no charge to the University.

In September, the Trustees appointed Elizabeth A. Ryder, M.D., to the faculty position of Assistant Director of the Department of Physical Education. She held that position for two academic years before submitting her resignation to the Trustees on 29 May 1901.

In December, "at the suggestion of the women students of the University," the Trustees authorized the use of the gymnasium for women, located "at 39th and Locust Streets." The Trustees confirmed their earlier appointment of Elizabeth A. Ryder, M.D. to the faculty position of Assistant Director of the Department of Physical Education. They also appointed Esther Kuhn to the part-time faculty position of Instructor in the Department of Physical Education. They set the annual salary of Ms. Kuhn at $300 with the understanding that if her work should expand to full time, her compensation would increase appropriately. In order to defray the cost of Ms. Kuhn's salary, they established a gymnasium general fee of $1 per semester and charged it to all women students in the Biological Department and the course in Interior Decoration.

1900

Women students at Penn published an announcement of the organization of a Women's Club. The Club was located at 3903 Locust Street, in the same building as the women's gymnasium. The purpose of the club was "to promote social interests among the women students and especially to provide as far as possible for the undergraduates an opportunity for college life." The founders and first officers of the Women's Club were Frances Anne Keay (LL.B., 1902), Jessie Kellogg Henry (Department of Biology, but did not graduate), Helen Taylor Higgins (B.S. in Biology, 1900), and Marianne Roxana Seward Young (Courses for Teachers, no degree offered). It does not appear, however, that this first Women's Club prospered, because nothing more was heard about it. The financial support of Dr. Fanny Rysam Mulford Hitchcock was essential in opening the women's gymnasium at 3903 Locust Street and it therefore seems likely that the fortunes of the Women's Club at the same address were tied to the continuing interest of Dr. Hitchcock in the women of the University. When she declined, in May 1901, to continue as "Director of Women Students" at Penn, the Women's Club and women's gymnasium at 3903 Locust Street were probably closed soon thereafter.

1901

Twenty-five years after the first women enrolled in classes at Penn, a total of 317 women were enrolled in six different academic programs. The great majority of women attended classes on a part time basis in the Courses for Teachers program and were not candidates for degrees. 66 women were full time students, enrolled in the Department of Music, the Department of Biology, the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences or the Law School. They aimed to earn a degree and enter a profession of their choice. In addition there were 68 women enrolled in the University Hospital Training School for Nurses. They were also full time students. They aimed to complete the School's three-year course and earn its diploma in nursing. The University of Pennsylvania Catalogue for 1901-02 contained a brief account of the Training School for Nurses listed the sixteen students who formed the Graduating Class of 1901.

It was also at the Hospital that women held senior administrative and academic administrator positions. Jean W. McPherson combined both functions in a single position, serving simultaneously as Superintendent of the Hospital and Directress of Nurses. As Superintendent, she was responsible for one of the largest budgets and largest payrolls on campus; as Directress, she was the chief academic officer of the Training School for Nurses. HUP admitted more than 2,600 patients in 1901 and treated another 13,200 on an out-patient basis. She managed annual expenditures of $142,000, which included a payroll of $33,000. No other woman at Penn held an administrative position remotely approaching the authority of the Superintendent of the Hospital. The Assistant Superintendent of the Hospital was also a woman, Elsie F.M. Chambers. Ms. McPherson and Ms. Chambers were also the chief academic administrators, senior teachers, and supervisors of student life in the Training School for Nurses. They were responsible for the student nurses both in the classroom and in the Nurses' Home, where the entire student body was required to live.

Women were still half a century away from being represented among the Trustees of the University, but they had advanced to membership in three of the University's Boards of Managers. Three women - Ellen Nixon Waln Harrison ("Mrs. Charles C. Harrison"), Mrs. Edward M. Paxson, and Mrs. George Wharton Pepper - served as Managers of the University Hospital. One woman - Sarah Yorke Stevenson - was a member and an officers of the Board of Managers of the University Museum. Seven women - Lucy Wharton Drexel, "Mrs. William Frishmuth," Emily Gardner Leland Harrison ("Mrs. John Harrison"), "Mrs. Walter M. James," Elizabeth Norris Platt ("Mrs. Charles Platt, Jr."), M. Carey Thomas, and Sabine d'Invillier Weightman Wister ("Mrs. Jones Wister") - served on the Museum's Advisory Board of Managers. Though the Board of Managers of the Graduate Department of Women had atrophied considerably in the latter half of the 1890s, women continued to be represented by the wives of two members of the faculty, Gertrude Stevenson McMaster ("Mrs. John Bach McMaster") and "Mrs. Felix E. Schelling."

Lastly, a few women held salaried ositions among the University staff. The most prominent were Margaret Center Klingelsmith (LL.B., 1898), Librarian of the Biddle Law Library, and Susan W. Randall, Assistant Librarian of the University. There were another fifteen women working in the University Library, whose responsibilities were already specialized along the modern departmental units of acquisitions, cataloging, circulation, public services, and departmental libraries. There were also Dr. Ryder and Ms. Kuhn, in the Department of Physical Education, as described in the entry for 1899, above.

In March, however, the Trustees adopted the following resolution:

That while highly appreciating the generous offer made by Miss [Fanny Rysam Mulford] Hitchcock for establishment of one or more undergraduate courses for women, leading to a degree in Arts or Science, the Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania, after careful consultation with the officers of instruction and government, are unable to recede from the position announced by them in previous years; viz., that they would undertake the establishment of a separate College for Women as soon as they should be provided with adequate funds for that purpose. They cannot regard the plan proposed by Miss Hitchcock as within the lines of their declared policy, and therefore, with much regret, and a sincere sympathy in her desire to advance the education of women, are obliged to withhold their approval of the particular plan proposed by her in her communication of February 26, 1901.

In May, Dr. Fanny Rysam Mulford Hitchcock informed the Trustees that she did not desire to be re-elected "Director of Women Students of the University." The Trustees adopted a resolution which thanked her for "the services she has rendered in that capacity" and also stated that the Trustees would not elect a successor to Ms. Hitchcock.

1902

At the celebration of University Day, held on 22 February, Agnes Repplier, the nationally-prominent Philadelphia author, became the third woman recipient of an honorary degree at Penn. The Trustees granted her the honorary degree of Doctor of Letters (Hon. Litt.D.) in recognition of her revival of "the art well-nigh lost in these days, of the Essayist." She was the second woman to be awarded the honorary Litt.D. degree at Penn.

1903

In January, the Trustees elected seven faculty members to the Board of Managers of the Graduate Department for Women, none of them women.

1904

Sara Yorke Stevenson was elected President of the Board of Managers of the University Museum. Though she served just one year, she was the first woman to serve as President or Chair of the University Museum.

The College faculty founded the Summer School Courses and admitted women to this program from its inception. A Certificate of Proficiency was granted to those who successfully completed the course.

Delta Delta Delta was established, the second sorority at Penn.

1906

At the Commencement held on 13 June, the University granted the degree of Master of Science in Zoology to Hannah May Blake (B.S. in Biol., 1905) and in Chemistry to Lucy Middleton Griscom (B.S. in Biol., 1903). They were the first women to earn the modern M.S. degree at Penn.

College Courses for Teachers (CCT) was founded and admitted women from its inception. The CCT was the predecessor to the College of General Studies (CGS) and its courses led to the degrees of Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Science.

1908

At the celebration of University Day, held on 22 February, Cecelia Beaux, the celebrated Philadelphia artist, became the fourth woman recipient of an honorary degree at Penn. The Trustees granted her the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws (Hon. LL.D.) in recognition of her achievements in the field of portraiture. She was the first woman to be awarded the honorary LL.D. degree at Penn.

At the Commencement held on 17 June, the University awarded the degree of Bachelor of Arts to Pauline Wolcott Spencer. She was the first woman to earn the A.B. degree at Penn. At the same Commencement the University awarded the degree of Bachelor of Science to Zeta Berenice Cundey. These two women were the first to complete the requirements for the bachelor's degree at Penn through the College Courses for Teachers program. Both women were career teachers in the Philadelphia public schools. Pauline Spencer taught the history of education at the Philadelphia Normal School for Girls and Zeta Cundey was head of the English department at the William Penn High School for Girls. Both served as President of the University's Alumnae Association during the first decade of its existence.

1912

In February, women students petitioned the Trustees for the appointment of a Dean of Women. The Trustees referred to the petition to Provost Edgar Fahs Smith. No action was taken.

In May, the Alumnae Association of the University of Pennsylvania was founded. Its purposes were "to unite the women graduates of the University of Pennsylvania and to further among them a spirit of cooperation in work and fellowship; to promote the welfare of the women students at the University; and to keep alive the interest of the women graduates in all the activities of their Alma Mater." The first officers were Pauline Wolcott Spencer (A.B., 1908; A.M. in Latin, Sociology, and Psychology, 1910; and Ph.D. in Sociology, 1915), Sarah Pleis Miller (B.S. in Biology, 1899 and Ph.D. in Chemistry, 1904), Jennie Ritner Beale (A.M. in English Literature and Ethics, 1910), Zeta Berenice Cundey (B.S., 1908 and A.M. in English Literature, 1913), Eleanor Fulton Karsner (B.S. in Biology, 1905 and A.M. in Sociology, 1914), and Mrs. Elizabeth N. Woolman Pennock (Certificate of Proficiency in Chemistry, 1893).

At the Commencement held in June, the University awarded the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Sociology to Alice Paul. She was the first woman at Penn to earn the Ph.D. degree in Sociology. Four years later, in June 1916, Alice Paul founded the National Woman's Party, the chief purpose of which was to lobby for the immediate passage of an amendment to the U.S. Constitution which guaranteed to women the right to vote. The 19th Amendment to the Constitution was ratified in 1920. Alice Paul and the National Woman's Party then turned their attention to the adoption of an Equal Rights Amendment for women. Though this second effort was not successful, it propelled Alice Paul to national leadership in the women's rights movement. In 1938 Paul founded the World Woman's Party in Geneva, Switzerland and in the years immediately following World War II, the World Woman's Party lobbied successfully for the inclusion of equality provisions in the United Nations charter.

In October, the Trustees authorized the expenditure of $1,000 for furnishing and equipping a women's dormitory on South Thirty-Fourth Street.

1913

Undergraduate women compile and publish their first yearbook, The Record, a manuscript work of twenty-eight pages. All copies were prepared by hand, with class photographs reproduced and prints hand pasted to the pages.

The Women's Dormitory was opened in two houses at 120-22 South Thirty-Fourth Street, at the southwest corner of Thirty-Fourth and Sansom Streets. The twelve residence rooms were available only to women enrolled in the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, but the buildings' rest rooms and dining hall were open to all women at Penn.

1914

The School of Education was founded and was the ninth academic program at Penn to admit women from its inception, but the first to offer a modern, full-time, four-year, undergraduate, professional degree to women.

The School of Medicine and the School of Dental Medicine admitted women for the first time.

Undergraduate Penn women published The Quill: The Girls' Book as a gift to the Class of 1915. It was a twenty-four page, illustrated booklet, "striving," its editors stated, "towards a College Record Book for the Girls of the University of Pennsylvania." The Quill described women's student life activities in the 1914-15 academic year, including the "Pêle Mêle" musical comedy and songfest; the second "Annual Dance" sponsored by women in Houston Hall; and the "Senior-Junior Frolic at Wildwood-by-the-Sea." The Quill also demonstrated that Penn women had organized a student government, the Women's Undergraduate Association, and elected class officers in each of the four undergraduate classes. In addition the women had formed at least two student clubs and maintained their support of two sororities, Kappa Kappa Gamma and Delta Delta Delta.

1915

Lydia Katharine Adams (A.B., 1916) was the first Editor-in-Chief of the women's Record. She was also a member of the undergraduate women's English Club; a member of the cast for the women's dramatic performance, "Pele Mele," in 1915; and President of the Senior Class in 1915-16. She was also a member of Kappa Kappa Gamma sorority.

At the Commencement held on 16 June, the University awarded the Bachelor of Science in Education degree to Elsie May Bartlett, Cora Hallman Buckwalter, and Elmira Lodor. They were the first women to earn the B.S. in Ed. degree at Penn.

Penn women form a women's chapter of the Catholic Students' Organization Committee, which, in 1920, changed its name to the Newman Club. The women's chapter had its own organization and officers. The first President of the women's chapter was Susan Genevieve MacMurray (A.M., 1914), who, in 1914-15 and 1915-16, was a student in the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences while simultaneously teaching at the Philadelphia High School for Girls. The President in the 1916-17 academic year and therefore the second President of the women's chapter was Maryrose McIlvain Davis (B.S. in Ed., June 1918). The Penn men's chapter of the Newman Club had been founded about 1893. The Newman Club was a religious service organization for Roman Catholic students, faculty, staff, alumni, as well as the general public.

1916

At the Commencement held on 21 June, Margaret Center Klingelsmith (LL.B. 1898), Librarian of the Law School from 1898 to 1939, became the fifth woman recipient of an honorary degree at Penn. The Trustees granted her the honorary degree of Master of Laws (Hon. LL.M.) in recognition of her several accomplishments: author of authoritative biographies of distinguished jurists; successful collector, on behalf of the Biddle Law Library, of rare books on the sources of English Law; and translator of legal classics from Old and Middle English. She was the first woman to be awarded the honorary LL.M.degree at Penn, the first alumna of the University to be awarded an honorary degree, and the first woman faculty or staff member of the University to be awarded an honorary degree.

At the Commencement held on 21 June, the University awarded the Doctor of Public Hygiene to Dorothy Child, Mary M.C. Langdon, and Annie Young. They were the first women to earn the Dr. P.H. degree at Penn.

The Sphinx and Key Honorary Society was established to honor those women students who worked "for the betterment of the girls' college life and activities and also for the advancement of their class in the University of Pennsylvania."

Pi Lambda Theta, a national honors society open to students enrolled in the School of Education, established a chapter at the University of Pennsylvania.

Six women students form the Penn women's section of the Young Women's Christian Association, which later took the shortened name of Christian Association (CA). The women's section had its own organization and officers. The first President of the women's section was Mary Guard Wright (B.S. in Ed., June 1917). The President in the 1917-18 academic year and therefore the second President of the women's section was Clara S. Evans (B.S. in Ed., 1918). The Penn men's chapter of the CA had been founded about 1891. The CA was a religious service organization whose membership was open to students, faculty, staff, alumni, and the general public.

1917

At the Commencement held on 20 June, the University awarded the degree of Doctor of Dental Surgery to Jessica Longsdorf Bozorth, Jane Nathan, and Esther Schupack. They were the first women to earn the D.D.S. degree at Penn. Dr. Bozorth and Dr. Schupack became practicing dentists in center city Philadelphia. Dr. Nathan became a practicing dentist in Johannesburg, South Africa.

Also at the Commencement of 1917, the University awarded the degree of Doctor of Medicine degree to Clara Hillesheim. She was the first woman to earn the M.D. degree at Penn. Following graduation, Dr. Hillesheim returned to her native Minnesota, where she joined the staff of the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota.

The School of Dental Medicine appointed Carrie Kirk Bryant (B.S. in Biol., 1907) to the faculty position of Instructor in Bacteriology. In 1926 she was promoted to Assistant Professor of Microbiology and Bacteriology. For several years she served the School as chairperson of its Research Committee of the Faculty. In 1928 she co-authored, with J.L.T. Appleton, Jr., A Laboratory Guide in Bacteriology particularly for Students in Dentistry (Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, 1928). She was the first woman to serve as an Officer of Instruction at the School of Dental Medicine and the first woman to be a member of that School's standing faculty.

1919

The University established the position of Instructor in Physical Education for Women and the Department of Physical Education appointed Ethel Loring to that faculty position. She conducted women's gym classes at the Kingsessing Recreation Center, 50th Street and Chester Avenue, in southwest Philadelphia. The editors of the Women's Undergraduate Record for 1920 expressed enthusiasm about the athletic program, but noted the extraordinary difficulty in attending class so far from the center of campus. Ethel Loring was the first woman to serve as an Officer of Instruction in the Department of Physical Education.

The School of Hygiene and Public Health appointed Edith Hedges Matzke, M.D. and Edith Hamilton Gordon, M.D. (Dr. P.H., 1921) to the faculty positions of Lecturer on Hygiene and Lecturer on Social Hygiene, respectively. Their work was funded by a "grant awarded by the United States Interdepartmental Social Hygiene Board" and they taught special courses of instruction in the School. They were the first women to serve as Officers of Instruction in the School of Hygiene and Public Health. In addition, both Dr. Matzke and Dr. Gordon accepted secondary appointments in the Department of Physical Education. The Department named Dr. Matzke to the faculty position of Medical Examiner for Women and Dr. Gordon to the faculty position of Instructor in Hygiene for Women. Dr. Matzke and Dr. Gordon also served as informal advisers to all undergraduate women.

The Graduate School of Medicine was founded and matriculation was open to men and women alike.

1920

The School of Fine Arts was founded, with courses leading to degrees in architecture, landscape architecture, fine arts, and music. The course in architecture did not admit women, but the other three admitted women from the date of their inception.

The University established the position of Advisor of Women, the first administrator at Penn responsible for women's student life. Louise Hortense Snowden, an alumna who had earned the Bachelor of Science in Biology with honors in 1898, was named the first Advisor. The editors of Women's Undergraduate Record for 1921 noted, "The girls feel they have a friend who is their very own."

The School of Education appointed Edith Baer, B.S., to the faculty position of Assistant Professor of Home Economics. She was the first woman to serve as an Officer of Instruction in the School of Education and the first woman to be a member of the standing faculty at Penn.

1921

At special convocation of the University Council held in College Hall on 23 May, Madame Marie Curie, the distinguished French chemist and discoverer of radium, became the sixth woman recipient of an honorary degree at Penn. The Trustees granted her the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws (Hon. LL.D.) in recognition of her extraordinary achievement in scientific research. She was the second woman to be awarded the honorary LL.D. degree at Penn. Madame Curie was too ill to attend the ceremony in person, but her daughter, Ilene Curie, was present and accepted the degree on behalf of her mother. A few days later, Madame Curie was able to visit the University briefly and while she was on campus she signed the visitors' register in the University library.

Also in May, the Trustees voted to establish the Bennett Club, a "clubhouse for women students," in a former dwelling house at 3322 Walnut Street. The "new clubhouse" was "to be fitted up somewhat after the fashion of the Houston Club, the men's clubhouse." The Trustees noted, "the women students have been asking for such a clubhouse for many years and for the last two years have been at work raising a fund."

At the Commencement held on 15 June, the University awarded the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Economics to Sadie Tanner Mossell. She was the first African American woman to earn the Ph.D. degree at Penn.

Margaret Katherine Majer (pronounced "Mayor") succeeded Ethel Loring as Instructor in Physical Education for Women. Margaret Majer was an excellent athlete, who had excelled in intercollegiate swimming as an undergraduate at Temple University. She soon expanded her role at Penn and became the first coach of women's athletic teams. She organized and trained a women's basketball team and scheduled the first intercollegiate competitions for women. The women's basketball team played eight opponents in its first year, including Bryn Mawr College, Drexel University, and Temple University. Teams in gymnastics, softball, swimming, and tennis were planned for the next year and Margaret Majer led a successful fundraising campaign to build women's tennis courts on what, for a few years, was a vacant lot on the southeast corner of Thirty-Fourth and Walnut Streets. Margaret Katherine Majer was soon celebrated as the founder of women's athletics at Penn. In 1924 she married Olympic oarsman John B. Kelly and subsequently became the mother of two Penn graduates, an Olympic medalist, and the extraordinary actress, Grace Kelly.

Encouraged by work of Margaret Majer, undergraduate women formed an Athletic Association and elected four student athletes - Catherine Elizabeth Riggs (A.B., 1923), Genevieve M. McDermott (B.S. in Ed., 1923), Georgina Pope Yeatman (A.B., 1922), and Mildred Dougherty (B.S. in Ed., 1923) - the first officers of the Association.

The Graduate School of Arts and Sciences established a graduate level course in business, leading to the Master of Business Administration degree. The first degrees were awarded in 1922.

Mortar Board, a "national honorary fraternity for women," was organized at Penn in 1921. It was only three years old, the first chapter of the organization having been founded in 1918 at Syracuse University. Its membership was open only to senior women who "have been prominent in college activities."

Twelve seniors and seven juniors were named the first members of the Penn chapter of Mortar Board. These nineteen "honor" women were as follows:

Seniors, members of the Class of 1921:

  • Dorothy Aiken Buckley (B.S. in Ed., with honors, June 1921)
  • Anne Katharine Canning (B.S. in Ed., June 1921)
  • Ruth Celestia Dibert (B.S. in Ed., June 1921)
  • Charlotte Easby (A.B., College of General Studies, June 1921)
  • Margaret Janvier Hort (B.S. in Ed., June 1921)
  • Marion Jordan Johnson (B.S. in Ed., June 1921)
  • Regina Catherine Kelley (B.S. in Ed., June 1921)
  • Marion Woodworth Masland (B.S. in Ed., June 1921)
  • Clara Rabinowitz (B.S. in Ed., June 1921)
  • Helena E. Riggs (A.B., College of General Studies, June 1921)
  • Ardis Anna Voegelin (B.S. in Ed., June 1921)
  • Miriam Edith Woolley (A.B., College of General Studies, June 1921)

Juniors, members of the Class of 1922:

  • Margaret Allen Alcott (A.B., College of General Studies, June 1922)
  • Dorothy Mary Calby (B.S. in Ed., June 1922)
  • Marguerite Burns Evans (B.S. in Ed., June 1922)
  • Margaret Frankeberger (A.B., College of General Studies, June 1922)
  • Ruby Zarouhie Kevorkian (B.S. in Ed., February 1923)
  • Beulah Evelyn McGorvin (A.B., College of General Studies, June 1922)
  • Margaret Agnes Sharpless (B.S. in Ed., June 1922)

1922

The School of Education appointed Helen Crandall Goodspeed, B.S., to the faculty position left vacant by the death of Edith Baer. As Assistant Professor of Home Economics for the academic year 1922-23, Helen Crandall Goodspeed was the second woman to be a member of the standing faculty at Penn.

1923

The School of Education appointed Ruth E. Michaels, Ph.B., A.M., to the faculty position of Assistant Professor of Home Economics. She was the third woman to be an Officer of Instruction at the School of Education and the third woman to be a member of the standing faculty at Penn.

1924

At the Commencement held on 18 June, Anne Hollingsworth Wharton, famous Philadelphia author and an authority on early American history and culture, became the seventh woman recipient of an honorary degree at Penn. The Trustees granted her the honorary degree of Doctor of Letters (Hon. Litt.D.) in recognition of her study of American history, her contributions to English literature, and her inspirational patriotism. She was the third woman to be awarded the honorary Litt.D. degree at Penn.

Also at the Commencement held on 18 June, the University awarded the Bachelor of Fine Arts degree to Margaret Frances Coleman. She was the first woman to earn the B.F.A. degree at Penn.

The University purchased an upscale apartment building at the northeast corner of Thirty-Fourth and Chestnut Streets and converted it to Sergeant Hall, a women's dormitory and clubhouse. Sergeant Hall provided living and dining quarters for 175 women students, both graduate and undergraduate. It also hosted several women's student organizations.

The Women's Student Government Association began publication of a women's student newspaper, The Bennett News. Grace Marie Haspel (B.S. in Ed., 1925) was the first Editor-in-Chief of The Bennett News. This weekly paper went through twenty-three volumes before its name changed to The Pennsylvania News in the fall of 1947. The Pennsylvania News was published until the fall of 1964.

1925

In November, after thirty years of debate and nearly two years of construction, Bennett Hall opened at Thirty-fourth and Walnut Streets. It immediately fulfilled its purpose as the academic center for women at Penn. For the next forty years it was home to the School of Education and the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, the two schools that enrolled more women students than all the other schools combined.

In October, Provost Penniman named Harriet Jean Crawford the first Directress of Women at Penn. She was a 1902 graduate of Bryn Mawr College and "Director of Halls" at Vassar College at the time of her appointment at Penn. She agreed to live in Penn's Sergeant Hall and to direct the women's Bennett Club, as well as "the activities of women students outside the classroom."

1926

Fifty years after the first women students matriculated at Penn, a total of 4,739 women were enrolled in seventeen different academic programs. The majority of women students continued to attend classes on a part time basis and were not candidates for degrees, but nearly 2,000 women were enrolled in courses leading to degrees. The School of Education, with 1,169 women working toward the Bachelor of Science in Education degree and the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, with 552 women working toward masters and doctorates, enrolled more than eighty-five percent of full-time women students. Women were enrolled in eight of the University's fifteen bachelor's degree programs and nine of its eleven graduate and professional degree programs. In the undergraduate schools the courses in architecture, business, chemistry, and engineering were still closed to women, but in the graduate and professional schools only the courses in architecture and veterinary medicine remained closed. In addition there were 183 women enrolled in the University Hospital Training School for Nurses. They were also full time students. They aimed to complete the School's three-year course and earn its diploma in nursing.

Women were also beginning to appear among the several faculties of the University. In addition to Carrie Kirk Bryant and Ruth E. Michaels, both of whom had advanced to the rank of Assistant Professor by 1926, three others had held the academic rank of Associate - just below that of Assistant Professor - in the Graduate School of Medicine. They were Katherine M. Starkey, M.D., who was appointed Associate in Pediatric Hygiene in 1923; Emily Partridge Bacon, A.B., M.D., who, in 1924, succeeded Starkey as Associate in Pediatric Hygiene; and Marnetta E. Vogt, M.D., who was appointed a Lecturer in Gynecology in 1925 and promoted to Associate in Gynecology the following year. Elsewhere in the University, there were more than two dozen women who held appointments with the academic rank of Instructor or Assistant Instructor. In addition there were 30 women staff members in the University Hospital Training School for Nurses whose work was, at least in part, teaching of the student nurses. At least two of that number - Madge Timlin, R.N., the Director of Instruction, and Viola B. Brown, R.N., the Assistant Instructor - appeared to devote the majority of their time to teaching and training. At least two others - Mary Louise Snyder, R.N., who had held the position of Directress of Nurses since 1909, and Lucy Mastern, R.N., the Assistant Directress of Nurses - appeared to hold academic administrator positions. If so, they were the only two women Officers of Instruction at Penn in 1926 to serve the University as academic administrators.

Marion Hague Rea (Mrs. B. Lucke), A.B., M.D., was Instructor of Medicine in the Department of Medicine in the School of Medicine (1920-46), Director of Health for Women (1922-31), and Student Physician for Women (1926-46).

Mary M. Search was Superintendent of the Bennett Club from 1925-27.

Board of Managers of the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania included two women, Mrs. Chancellor Clement English and Mrs. Walter Smith Thomson. Board of Managers of the Graduate School of Medicine included Elizabeth Conway Clark and Celia Justine Nicholson. Mary Virginia Stephenson, R.N., was the Superintendent of the Hospital (1921-35) and had previously served as Assistant Directress and Instructor of Nurses in the Training School (1913-1921). Marion E. Smith had served as Superintendent of the Hospital from 1903 to 1921. No women among the six resident physicians, but two women - Julia Russell, M.D., and Katherine S. Andrews, M.D., among the twenty-two Interns. In the Medical Clinic of the Hospital, Elizabeth Glenn Ravdin, M.D., was the Henrietta Heckscher Research Fellow in Clinical Medicine. Lena R. Waters was Director of the Social Service Department.

In June, Penn's undergraduate women held their own Ivy Day ceremony, placing the first of many ivy stones on the Chancellor Street wall of the new Bennett Hall. Women had participated in the annual Hey Day program from the time of its establishment in 1916, but in 1926 the undergraduate men advised the women that they were no longer welcome. Women quickly responded by organizing their own Class Day and Ivy Day events and by 1931 had combined them in the Women's Hey Day. Women maintained independent programs and ceremonies until 1968, when they were once again combined with those of the men.

1928

At the Commencement held on 20 June, the University awarded the Graduate School of Medicine's degree of Master of Medical Science to Juanita Pearl Johns, Mary Campbell McIntyre, and Emily Lois Van Loon. They were the first women to earn the M.Sc. (Med.) degree at Penn.

1929

Anna Elizabeth Boyd (B.S. in Ed., 1929) was the first known President of the Panhellenic Council at Penn. The "Panhellenic Association" was in existence at Penn as early as 1925, when it was mentioned in The Bennett News, but the names of its presidents are unknown until 1929.

At the Commencement held on 19 June, the University awarded the Graduate School of Medicine's degree of Doctor of Medical Science to Juanita Pearl Johns (M.Sc. (Med.), 1928). She was the first woman to earn the D.Sc. (Med.) degree at Penn. Dr. Johns was an ophthalmologist who subsequently practiced for more than thirty years at the Massachusetts General Hospital in Cambridge, Massachusetts and the Women's Hospital in Brookline, Massachusetts.

The Graduate School of Arts and Sciences appointed Anne Bezanson, Ph.D., to the faculty position of Research Professor in Industry. In March 1921, she helped found the Industrial Research Department of the Wharton School and became its Associate Director. She served as Special Lecturer on Industrial Management for the academic year 1924-25 and Lecturer on Industry for the year 1928-29. In 1929, she earned the degree of Doctor of Philosophy from Radcliffe College. She was the first woman to join the standing faculty in the Graduate School. She was also the first woman to earn tenure in that School or in any School of the University and the first to hold a senior professorship at Penn.

The women's undergraduate Class of 1929 established a women's Hall of Fame at the University of Pennsylvania. The Record of 1929 described the intentions of those who introduced this idea, "Five Pennsylvania women are herewith presented whom we deem highly deserving of honor and esteem. There are others we know to be worthy, and it is our hope that succeeding classes will carry on what we started." The five nominees were Gertrude Klein Pierce Easby (Cert. of Prof. in Chem., 1878); Anna Lockhart Flanigen (Cert. of Prof. in Chem, 1878; Ph.D. in Chemistry, 1906); Margaret Center Klingelsmith (LL.B., 1898; Hon. LL.M., 1916); Louise Hortense Snowden (B.S. in Biol., 1898); and Ida Wood (Cert. of Prof., 1884). Mrs. Easby was married in 1884, soon became a mother, and was active in civic and social welfare organizations in Philadelphia. Dr. Flanigen was a professional chemist. Margaret Klingelsmith was Librarian of the Biddle Law Library of the Law School from 1898 to 1939. She was a translator of Norman-French digests of common law. Louise Snowden was Penn's first Advisor of Women, a position similar to the University's present day chief student affairs officer. When the Graduate Department for Women was established at Penn, Ida Wood was its first Secretary, serving from November 1891 to February 1893.

1930

At the Commencement held on 18 June, the University awarded the degree of Bachelor of Landscape Architecture to Edith Crosby Brown Stuart. She was the first woman to earn the B. L. Arch. degree at Penn.

The women's undergraduate Class of 1930 nominated four women - Anne Bezanson, Research Professor in Industry; Sigrid Anna Marie Nelson Craig (B.S. in Ed, 1916); Charlotte Easby Grave (A.B. 1921; A.M. 1922; Ph.D. in Psychology, 1924); Emily Lois Van Loon (M.Sc. in Med., 1928) - to the women's Hall of Fame at the University of Pennsylvania. Professor Bezanson was honored as the "only full-fledged women Professor in the University." Sigrid Nelson Craig was President of the Education Alumnae Association and Chairman of the Practice School Committee. Dr. Grave was a consulting psychologist in private practice (and daughter of Gertrude Pierce Klein Easby, one of the first two women to enroll at Penn in 1876). Dr. Van Loon was a Fellow of the American College of Surgeons, Chief of Otolaryngology at the Woman's Hospital, and Assistant in Bronchoscopy in the Graduate School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania.

1931

At the Commencement held on 17 June, the University awarded the degree of Master of Business Administration to Alma Katherine Ledig (B.S. in Ed., 1926). She was the first woman to earn the M.B.A. degree at Penn.

1932

At the Commencement held on 20 February, the University awarded the degree of Master of Science in Education to Ida Marie Stadie. She was the first woman to earn the M.S. in Ed. degree at Penn.

The School of Medicine appointed Florence Barbara Seibert, Ph.D., to the faculty position of Assistant Professor of Biochemistry in the Henry Phipps Institute. She was the first woman to join the standing faculty in the School of Medicine. In 1937 she was promoted to Associate Professor and became the first woman to earn tenure in the School of Medicine. In 1945 the University awarded her the honorary degree of Doctor of Science in recognition of her extraordinary discoveries on the detection and cure of tuberculosis. In 1955 she was promoted to Professor of Biochemistry, the first woman to hold a senior professorship in the School of Medicine. In 1959 she retired and was appointed Emeritus Professor of Biochemistry in the Phipps Institute.

The Trustees elected Marion Edwards Park an Associate Trustee of the University and appointed her to membership on the Board of Graduate Education and Research. Dr. Park, President of Bryn Mawr College since 1922, was the first woman to serve as an Associate Trustee (the equivalent of a present-day appointment to one of Penn's boards of overseers).

1933

The College of Liberal Arts for Women was founded and admitted women students only. For the first time in Penn's history, women were offered a full-time, four-year, liberal arts, undergraduate degree program. It should be noted, however, that the standing faculty of the College for Women did not include any women.

1934

At the Commencement held on 20 June, the University awarded the degree of Bachelor of Arts in the College of Liberal Arts for Women to nine women: Eleanor Doris Boerner, Anne Price Paxton Edmunds, Mary Ann Fees, Sidney Clymer Frick, Dorothy Handloff, Ruth Lenore Schindler, Ruth Bertha Elise Schmidt, Catharine Mary Sigafoos, and Florence Joan Weiss. They were the first graduates of the College of Liberal Arts for Women. In 1995 the University honored one of these nine - Ruth Schindler Bocour - by naming her a member of the Trustees' Council of Penn Women.

1935

In May, Penn established a women's section of the Delta Chapter of Phi Beta Kappa, the national academic honor society. The Delta Chapter was established at Penn in 1892, but its membership was open only to men. The women's section had its own organization and officers. The first members of the women's section of the Delta Chapter were Marion Melvina Astley, Alice Patchin Ake Holmes, Margaret Anne Kateley, Marion Grace Miller, Sara Elizabeth Pepper, Erma Renninger, and Susan Foulke Yocum. All seven earned the degree of Bachelor of Arts in the College for Women in 1935. In addition, at the May 1935 inaugural ceremonies for the women's section, one alumna, Ruth Bertha Elise Schmidt (A.B., College for Women, 1934) was also elected to membership.

The first officers of the Penn women's Phi Beta Kappa organization were Ada Heilner Haeseler Lewis (A.M. in History, 1922; in 1942, an Associate Trustee of the University) ("Mrs. John F. Lewis, Jr."), President; Anne Bezanson (Phi Beta Kappa at Radcliffe College; Research Professor in Industry in the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences), Vice-President; and Virginia Kinsman Henderson (B.S. in Ed., 1930; A.M. in Psychology, 1936; Personnel Officer in the College for Women), Secretary-Treasurer.

The Pennsylvania School of Social Work was affiliated with the University of Pennsylvania as a graduate professional school. The Pennsylvania School had been founded in 1909 and was well established as autonomous institution of higher education. Its Trustees, in the year of affiliation with Penn, included seven women: Helen Safford Knowles Bonnell ("Mrs. Henry H. Bonnell"), Harriet Frazier Zimmermann Caner ("Mrs. Gerald W. Caner"), Helen Derr Harbison, Ruth Mildred Ingeborg Karlson (B.S. in Ed., 1929; M.S.W., 1938), Mrs. I. Albert Liveright, Marion Clark Madeira ("Mrs. Louis C. Madeira"), and Helen Foss Wood ("Mrs. George Bacon Wood"). These seven were the first women to serve the University as overseers of the School of Social Work.

The Pennsylvania School of Social Work offered the professional degree of Master of Social Work. In its first year, the School of Social Work brought five women to the standing faculty - Virginia Pollard Robinson (Ph.D. in Sociology, 1931), Professor of Social Case Work; Jessie Taft, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Social Case Work; Isabel Gordon Carter, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Social Research; and Goldie Basch, B.A., B.S. and Rosa Lee Wessel, B.A., Assistant Professors of Social Case Work - and 186 women to the student body. The School of Social Work became a full professional school of the University in 1948 and beginning in 1949 offered the research and teaching degree of Doctor of Social Work.

The School of Education established a Department of Nursing Education and offered graduates of the diploma schools of nursing an undergraduate, professional degree in education. This advanced course was designed to prepare graduate nurses for positions in hospitals, schools of nursing, and public health nursing agencies. The establishment of the Department of Nursing Education in the School of Education is generally regarded as the founding of the modern School of Nursing at Penn. In 1935 the School of Education appointed two full Professors to the Department of Nursing Education: Katherine Tucker, R.N., A.B., and C. Ruth Bower, R.N., M.S., Sc.D. They were the first women to be awarded tenure in the School of Education and the first to hold senior professorships in that School. Professor Tucker was appointed Director of the Department of Nursing Education. Professor Bower moved to the School of Nursing, when it was established in 1950, and continued to serve as Professor of Nursing Education until her retirement in 1955. The University appointed her Emeritus Professor of Nursing Education, effective 1 July 1955.

1936

At the Commencement held on 10 June, the University awarded the degree of Bachelor of Architecture to Betty Ray Bernheimer and Halina Leszczynska. They were the first women to be awarded the B. Arch. degree at Penn.

Also at the Commencement of June 1936, the University awarded the degree of Master of Social Work to thirty-nine women graduates of the Pennsylvania School of Social Work. They were the first women to earn the M.S.W. degree at Penn.

The School of Education acquired the Illman Training School for Kindergarten and Primary Teachers. The Illman School brought two women to the faculty - Adelaide Thomas Illman (B.S. in Ed., 1929), A.M., Professor of Education and Florence E. Thorp, Assistant Professor of Kindergarten Education. They were the first two women to join the School of Education as standing faculty in the academic discipline of education (as opposed to another discipline - Nursing - or a vocation - Home Economics). Adelaide Illman was the first woman to be awarded tenure in the academic discipline of education and the first woman to hold a senior professorship in that discipline.

Althea Stauffer Kratz Hottel (B.S. in Ed., 1929, A.M. in Sociology, 1934, Ph.D. in Sociology, 1940, Hon. LL.D., 1959), though just seven years out of college, was named Directress of Women.

1937

At the Commencement held on 9 June, the University awarded the degree of Bachelor of Architecture to Georgina Pope Yeatman (A.B., 1922), as of the Year 1925; to Doris Joy Derbyshire, as of the Year 1929, and to Hannah Benner Roach, as of the Year 1935. These three were therefore recognized as the first women to complete the course for the B. Arch. degree at Penn, even though not the first women to be awarded the degree itself.

Georgina Pope Yeatman, one of the founders of the Women's Athletic Association (see above, entry for 1921), was a student in School of Fine Arts' architecture course for two years, from 1922 through 1924. Though academically qualified, she was denied a degree by the faculty of the SFA. She enrolled in Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1924 and earned the degree of B.S. in Architecture from MIT in 1925. In 1929 she became the first woman to practice architecture in Philadelphia and in 1936 she became the City of Philadelphia's first woman Director of Architecture.

1938

At the Commencement held on 15 June, the University awarded the degree of Doctor of Veterinary Medicine to Mary Josephine Deubler. She was the first woman to earn the V.M.D. degree at Penn.

1941

At the Commencement held on 11 June, the University awarded the School of Fine Arts' degree of Bachelor of Applied Arts to Antoinette Bremner Walker. She was the first woman to earn the B.A.A. degree at Penn.

Also at the Commencement of 1941, the University awarded the School of Medicine's degree of Master of Public Health to Ruth Hartley Weaver, M.D. and Dorothy Donnelly Wood. They were the first women to earn the M.P.H. degree at Penn. Dr. Weaver, a 1917 graduate of the Women's Medical College of Pennsylvania, was Assistant Director of the Philadelphia Department of Public Health. In 1960 she would become Director of Medical Services for the Philadelphia Board of Education.

1942

At the Commencement held on 2 June, the University awarded the degree of Master of Fine Arts to Christine Monaghan Sosna (B.F.A., 1939). She was the first woman to earn the M.F.A. degree at Penn.

1943

Althea Kratz Hottel was appointed Dean of Women, the first woman at Penn to hold the title of Dean.

At the Commencement held on 2 June, the University awarded the degree of Master of Architecture to Christine Alice Fahringer (B. Arch., 1941). She was the first woman to earn the M. Arch. degree at Penn.

1944

At the Commencement held on 4 March, the University awarded the degree of the Fels Institute for Local and State Government, the Master of Governmental Administration, to Eleanor Elizabeth Achterman and Martha Ring (B.A., 1942). They were the first women to earn the M.G.A. degree at Penn.

In June a "School" of Nursing was established and the University announced a five-year course leading to the Bachelor of Science in Nursing. During the first two years the student was enrolled in the College of Liberal Arts for Women, "for a program of pre-professional courses." Then the student entered the regular three-year course of the School of Nursing of the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania. In this way the University offered the degree of Bachelor of Science in Nursing, but without establishing a faculty of nursing with its own dean. In addition, the hybrid curriculum of liberal arts classes and the traditional, three-year, nurses' training program did not provide its graduates with a mastery of the academic discipline or a set of professional skills superior to that of the graduates of the HUP School of Nursing. The five-year course was considered a "basic curriculum" in contrast to the "advanced curriculum" taught in the School of Education.

At the Commencement held on 1 July, the University awarded diplomas in Nursing to twenty-nine women graduates of the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing. This was the first class of the HUP School of Nursing to be recognized by the University at its Commencement.

The Hillel Foundation was established in this year at 3613 Locust Street. Wilma Frances Korn (B.S. in Ed., June 1945) was the first President of the Hillel Foundation. Hillel was the successor to the Louis Marshall Society as the Jewish student organization at Penn. The Louis Marshall Society had been established in 1938; the men's undergraduate yearbook for 1938 described the Marshall Society as follows, "the religious and cultural organization of the Jewish students at the University. The Society is an outgrowth of the former Jewish Students' Association." Wilma Korn was President of the Louis Marchall Society when it changed its name to the Hillel Foundation. The Jewish Students' Association had been organized in 1924 by the Philadelphia Branch of the United Synagogue of America. It had occupied the "Jewish Students' House" at 3613 Locust Street since the mid 1920s, where it served as a dormitory, Kosher dining room, and a social center for Jewish students. No woman is known to have served as President of the Jewish Students' Society. The Hillel Foundation moved to 202 South 36th Street in May 1946. It is scheduled to move again in 2002 to a new building near 39th and Walnut Streets.

Penn women form a women's chapter of the Catholic Students' Organization Committee, which, in 1920, changed its name to the Newman Club. The women's chapter had its own organization and officers. The first President of the women's chapter was Susan Genevieve MacMurray (A.M., 1914), who, in 1914-15 and 1915-16, was a student in the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences while simultaneously teaching at the Philadelphia High School for Girls. The President in the 1916-17 academic year and therefore the second President of the women's chapter was Maryrose McIlvain Davis (B.S. in Ed., June 1918). The Penn men's chapter of the Newman Club had been founded about 1893. The Newman Club was a religious service organization for Roman Catholic students, faculty, staff, alumni, as well as the general public.

1945

At the Commencement held on 18 June, the University awarded the Graduate School of Medicine's degree of Master of Medical Science to Helen Octavia Dickens. She was the first African American woman to earn the M.Sc. (Med.) degree at Penn.

Also in June, the Trustees established the Constituent Board of Education for Social Work. It was the ninth Constituent Board created by the Trustees. One month later, the Trustees elected Helen Derr Harbison and Martha Rosenthal Wolf (B.S. in Ed., 1927) ("Mrs. Howard A. Wolf") Associate Trustees of the University and appointed them members of the Board of Education for Social Work.

Also in June, the Trustees elected Ada Haeseler Lewis (A.M., 1922) ("Mrs. John F. Lewis, Jr.") an Associate Trustee of the University with membership on the Board of Liberal Arts, which had oversight of the College (for men), the College for Women and the College of General Studies. Mrs. Lewis was the first woman to serve the University as a member of the Constituent Board of Liberal Arts.

The Graduate School of Medicine appointed Mary Hoskins Easby, A.B., M.D., to the faculty position to Assistant Professor of Cardiology in the Department of Medicine. She was the first woman to join the standing faculty in the Graduate School of Medicine.

The School of Veterinary Medicine appointed Mary Josephine Deubler (D.V.M. 1938, M.S. 1941, Ph.D. 1944) to the faculty position of Assistant Professor of Veterinary Pathology. She was the first woman to join the standing faculty in that School.

1946

At the Commencement held on 28 February, the University awarded the School of Education's degree of Doctor of Education to Elizabeth K. Porter (M.S., 1936). She was the first woman to earn the Ed. D. degree at Penn.

The School of Fine Arts appointed Joyce Michell, Ph.D., to the faculty position of Associate Professor of Music and the academic administrative position of Chair of the Department of Music in the School of Fine Arts. She is the first woman to join the standing faculty in the School of Fine Arts and the first to earn tenure in that School.

The Wharton School appointed graduate student Elizabeth Wallace to the faculty position of Instructor in the Department of Finance. She was the first woman to serve as an officer of instruction in that School.

1947

The College of Arts and Sciences appointed Elizabeth Farquhar Flower (A.M. 1936, Ph.D. 1939) to the faculty position of Assistant Professor of Philosophy. She was the first woman to join the standing faculty in the College of Arts and Sciences. In 1956 she was promoted to Associate Professor and became the first women to earn tenure in the College of Arts and Sciences.

1948

In June, the Trustees elected Sarah Logan Wister Starr (Hon. A.M., 1941) an Associate Trustee of the University with membership on the Board of Libraries. Sarah Starr was the first woman to serve the University as a member of the Board of Libraries and the third woman to serve with oversight responsibilities for the University Libraries.

At the Commencement held on 26 August, the University awarded the Bachelor of Science in Nursing degree to Mary Ellen Booker, Wanda Wynelle Shellhouse, Idella Swartz Snavely, and Betty Becherer Wohlwend. They were the first women to earn the B.S. in N. degree at Penn.

The Wharton School appointed Dorothy Swaine Thomas, Ph.D., to the faculty position of Professor of Sociology. She was the first woman to join the standing faculty in the Wharton School and the first to hold a senior professorship in that School.

1949

The General Alumni Society awarded its highest honor, the Alumni Award of Merit, to Laura Ruth Murray Klein (B.S. in Ed., 1931; A.M. in English, 1933; Ph.D. in English, 1943). She had served the University as National President of the Association of Alumnae, from 1943 to 1946 and as a founder and chairperson of the Alumnae for Annual Giving, from 1944 through 1948. She was the first woman recipient of the Alumni Award of Merit.

1950

In July the basic and advanced degree programs in nursing combined to form the modern School of Nursing and the degrees of Bachelor of Science in Nursing and Bachelor of Science in Nursing Education consolidated under the new School. Theresa Inez Lynch, R.N., A.M., Ed.D., was appointed Professor of Nursing and Dean of the School. She was the first woman to be appointed an academic Dean at Penn. Prior to this appointment she had held the academic administrator position of Directress of Nurses at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania since 1942 and had subsequently succeeded Katherine Tucker as Director of the Department of Nursing Education in the School of Education. The School also appointed four other women to the standing faculty: C. Ruth Bower, R.N., M.S., Sc.D., Professor of Nursing Education; Adaline Chase, R.N., B.A., M.A., the Helene Fuld Associate Professor of Nursing Education; R. Mildred Hall, R.N., B.S., M.P.H., Assistant Professor of Nursing Education in Public Health Nursing; and Helen Edgecombe Hess, R.N., B.S., M. Litt., Assistant Professor of Nursing Education.

The School of Auxiliary Medical Services was established and offered undergraduate, professional degrees of Bachelor of Science in Occupational Therapy and Bachelor of Science in Physical Therapy. The School appointed Helen Smith Willard, B.A., O.T.R., to the faculty position of Professor of Occupational Therapy and to the academic administrative position of Director of the Philadelphia School of Occupational Therapy. The School appointed Dorothy E. Baethke, B.S., A.R.P.T., to the faculty position of Professor of Physical Therapy and the academic administrative position of Director of the Division of Physical Therapy. The School also appointed three other women to the standing faculty: Clare Spencer Spackman (B.S. in Ed., 1941, M.S. in Ed., 1942), O.T.R., was Associate Professor of Occupational Therapy; Eleanor Jane Carlin, B.S. (M.S. in Ed., 1947), A.R.P.T., Assistant Professor of Physical Therapy; and Eleanor Kyle, B.A., O.T.R., Assistant Professor of Occupational Therapy. In March 1952 the School announced to the Executive Board of the Trustees two new courses, one leading to the Bachelor of Science in Medical Technology and the other to the Bachelor of Science in Radiological Technology.

1951

In the Fall semester, seventy-five years after Anna Flanigen and Gertrude Pierce enrolled in Chemistry classes, a total of 4,234 women were enrolled in 24 different academic programs. The majority of women students (2,273 or 53.68%) continued to attend classes on a part time basis, but the number enrolled in courses leading to degrees had increased substantially (2,441 or 57.65%). The College for Women, offering its undergraduate liberal arts degree, had clearly met a real need at Penn. With 695 full time students, the College enjoyed an enrollment of women more than twice that of any other undergraduate school. 326 women were enrolled in the undergraduate programs of the School of Education; 174 in those of the School of Nursing; 83 in the School of Allied Medical Professions; 50 in the School of Fine Arts; and 19 in the College Collateral Courses. Among the graduate and professional schools, 99 full time women students were enrolled in the School of Social Work, more than twice the number enrolled in any other professional degree program. 43 women were enrolled in the graduate, professional-degree programs of the School of Education; 21 in the School of Medicine; 16 in the Graduate School of Medicine; 15 in the Law School; 12 in the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences; and six in the Wharton School.

868 women students were enrolled in part time courses leading to degrees: 253 were working toward masters and doctoral degrees in the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences; 230 in the School of Education; 74 in the School of Social Work; nine in the Wharton School, and four in the School of Fine Arts. 179 women were enrolled in part time classes leading to an undergraduate degree in the School of Nursing; 41 in the College Collateral Courses; 34 in the School of Education; 29 in the School of Allied Medical Professions; and 12 in the School of Fine Arts.

1,793 women students were enrolled in courses that did not lead to a degree: 388 full time students in the HUP School of Nursing; 797 part time students in the College Collateral Courses; 346 students in the Extension schools of Nursing, Wharton, and Education; 187 in the Wharton Evening School; and 75 in the Oral Hygiene program of the School of Dental Medicine.

Women had also made major advances in the ranks of the faculty. Women had won appointments to the standing faculty in thirteen of the fifteen schools of the University. Only the faculties of Law and Engineering had failed to appoint or promote a woman to the rank of Assistant Professor or higher. Women held tenured faculty positions in nine of the fifteen - the School of Medicine, the Wharton School, the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, the School of Education, the School of Fine Arts, the College of Liberal Arts for Women, and the schools of Social Work, Allied Medical Professions, and Nursing - and women held full or senior professorships in seven of those nine (Dr. Florence B. Seibert would not become Professor of Biochemistry in the School of Medicine until 1955 and no woman would hold a senior professorship in the School of Fine Arts until 1958).

At the Commencement held on 10 February, the University awarded the degree of Bachelor of Science in Nursing Education to twenty-eight graduates of the School of Nursing. These were the first women to earn the B.S.in N.Ed. degree at Penn.

At the Commencement held on 13 June, the University awarded the degree of Doctor of Social Work to Anita J. Faatz, Goldie Basch Faith, Elizabeth Alston Lawder, and Rosa Wessel. They were the first women to earn the D.S.W. degree at Penn.

1952

At the Commencement held on 18 June, the University awarded the School of Allied Medical Profession's degree of Bachelor of Science in Occupational Therapy to Josephine Cohen, Marie Antoinette Robbins, and Thelma M. Thoms. They were the first women to earn the B.S. in O.T. degree at Penn.

203 years after Benjamin Franklin organized the first Trustees and twenty-five years after the Trustees were divided into three classes - Life, Term, and Alumni Trustees - Katharine Elizabeth McBride was elected one of the Term Trustees of the University. Dr. McBride had succeeded Marion Edward Park as President of Bryn Mawr College in 1942; had been awarded Penn's honorary degree of Doctor of Laws (LL.D.) that same year; and had also been elected an Associate Trustee of the University, serving as a member of the Trustees' Board of Graduate Education and Research. She was the first woman elected a Trustee of the University. In June she was elected a Term Trustee, to serve for ten years. Less than a year later, in May 1953 she was elected by her fellow Trustees to the Executive Committee of the Trustees. She was the first woman to serve the University as a member of the Executive Committee of the Trustees. In 1962, when her ten-year term expired, Dr. McBride was re-elected a Term Trustee. She served as a Term Trustee another four years, until her resignation in 1966.

1953

The College of Arts and Sciences and the College of Liberal Arts for Women merged their yearbooks into a single volume and the title page of The 101st Record boldly announced that it was "published by the coeducational undergraduates of the University of Pennsylvania."

At the Commencement held on 10 June, the University awarded the School of Allied Medical Profession's degree of Bachelor of Science in Physical Therapy to Martha Bodine. She was the first woman to earn the B.S. in P.T. degree at Penn.

1954

In February, the University announced that in the fall semester, for the first time, women would be admitted to the undergraduate programs of the School of Engineering and Applied Science and the Wharton School. These programs had been the last at Penn to exclude women. In September, fifteen undergraduate women enrolled in the Wharton School, nine of whom earned the degree of Bachelor of Science in Economics (B.S. in Econ.) by June 1958. Barbara G. Mandell was the first woman to enroll in the School of Engineering and Applied Science.

In March, the University appointed Dwight B. McNair Scott, M.D., to the faculty position of Assistant Professor of Physiological Chemistry in Medicine, in the School of Medicine, effective retroactively to 1 January 1954. In July 1956, Dr. Scott, a woman, was reappointed and her title changed to Assistant Professor of Biochemistry in Physiology.

Also in March, the University appointed Catherine C.L. Bacon, M.D., to the faculty position of Associate Professor of Psychiatry in the Graduate School of Medicine, effective retroactively to 25 January 1954. In July 1955 the University promoted her within the School of Medicine (not the Graduate School of Medicine) to the faculty position of Associate Professor of Clinical Psychiatry.

The Wharton School appointed Jean Andrus Crockett, B.A., M.A., Ph.D., to the faculty position of Assistant Professor of Finance. She was the first woman to join the standing faculty of the Wharton School in one of its departments of business education. In 1959 the Wharton School promoted her to Associate Professor of Finance and in 1965 to full Professor of Finance. She was the first woman to earn tenure and the first woman to hold a senior professorship in one of the departments of business education at the Wharton School.

In October, the Trustees elected the first woman Trustee, Katharine Elizabeth McBride, the first Chair of the Advisory Board of Teacher Education and Practice. She was both the first woman member of the Board and the first woman Chair. At the same October meeting, the Trustees elected Helen Cheyney Bailey (B.S. in Ed., 1919) an Associate Trustee of the University with membership on the Advisory Board of Teacher Education and Practice. She was the only woman among the Associate Trustees elected to the first Advisory Board of Teacher Education and Practice.

In December, the Trustees elected Lucile Petry Leone an Associate Trustee of the University with membership on the Advisory Board of Medical Education and Research. She was the first woman with oversight responsibilities for the schools of Dental Medicine, Medicine, and Veterinary Medicine.

1955

In March, the University appointed Rachel Ash, M.D., to the faculty position of Associate Professor of Cardiology in Pediatrics in the Graduate School of Medicine.

In May, the University appointed Neva Abelson, M.D., to the faculty position of Associate Professor of Pediatrics in the School of Medicine.

At the Commencement held on 15 June, the University awarded the School of Fine Arts' degree of Master of City Planning to Janet Ruth Scheff. She was the first woman to earn the M.C.P. degree at Penn.

In October, the Trustees elected Mary Todhunter (Clark) Rockefeller ("Mrs. Nelson A. Rockefeller") an Associate Trustee with membership on the Advisory Board of Medical Education and Research.

1956

At the Commencement held on 11 February, the University awarded the School of Allied Medical Professions' degree of Bachelor of Science in Medical Technology to Nancy Newlin. She was the first woman and the first person to earn the B.S. in M.T. degree at Penn.

At the Commencement held on 13 June, the University awarded the Wharton School's undergraduate business degree, the Bachelor of Science in Economics, to Carole Berman Silk. She was the first woman to earn the B.S. in Econ. degree at Penn.

Also at the Commencement of June 1956, the University awarded the degree of Master of Laws to Paula Rudy Markowitz. She was the first woman to earn the LL.M. degree at Penn.

In October, the University promoted Elizabeth Farquhar Flower from the faculty position of Assistant Professor of Philosophy in the College of Arts and Sciences to that of Associate Professor, effective retroactively as of 1 July 1956. She was the first woman to earn tenure in the College of Arts and Sciences.

1957

At the Commencement held on 12 June, the University awarded the School of Allied Medical Professions' degree of Bachelor of Science in Oral Hygiene to Marilyn Smith Hipple. She was the first woman and the first person to earn the B.S. in O.H. degree at Penn.

Academic year 1957-58 was the final year in which the University published an independent Bulletin for the College of Liberal Arts for Women containing "detailed information concerning the admission requirements and courses" in that the College. The list of Officers of Instruction in the College for Women included only eight women in the 170-member, standing faculty: Dorothy Swaine Thomas, Professor of Sociology in the Wharton School; Hildegarde J. Farquhar, Associate Professor of Physical Education; Elizabeth Farquhar Flower, Associate Professor of Philosophy in the College of Arts and Sciences; Joyce Michell, Associate Professor of Music; Eleanor S. Boll, Assistant Professor of Sociology; Elizabeth R. Burdick, Assistant Professor of Physical Education; Mildred L. Sylvester, Assistant Professor of Psychology; and Malvena Taiz, Assistant Professor of Physical Education. Only two of the eight - Associate Professor Flower and Assistant Professor Sylvester - held their primary appointments in the College of Arts and Sciences [for Men]. In addition, there were four women not members of the standing faculty, including the two senior academic administrators: R. Jean Brownlee, Vice-Dean and Associate in Political Science; Virginia Kinsman Henderson, Lecturer in Marriage Relations; Althea Kratz Hottel, Dean of Women and Lecturer in Sociology; and Elizabeth B. Hurlock, Associate in Psychology.

The School of Engineering and Applied Science appointed [Clara Johanne] Doris Kuhlmann-Wilsdorf, B.S., M.S., Ph.D., a mechanical metallurgist, to the faculty position of Research Associate Professor of Metallurgical Engineering (the present-day department of Materials Science and Engineering), effective 1 July. She was the first woman to join the standing faculty of the School of Engineering and Applied Science. In 1960 the School reappointed her and changed her title to Associate Professor of Metallurgy. She was therefore the first woman to earn tenure in the School of Engineering and Applied Science. Just one year later, in July 1961, the School promoted her to Professor of Metallurgical Engineering. She was therefore the first woman to hold a senior professorship at the School of Engineering and Applied Science. In 1963, however, Professor Kuhlmann-Wilsdorf left Penn to accept an appointment as Professor of Engineering Physics at the University of Virginia. There she flourished, eventually being promoted to University Professor of Applied Science. In 1994 she was honored by election to the National Academy of Engineering, with membership in the Materials Engineering section of the Academy.

1958

The University appointed Ruth Elizabeth Smalley to the academic administrator position of Dean of the School of Social Work. She was the first woman to be appointed Dean of that School and the second woman to be named an academic dean at Penn.

The School of Fine Arts promoted Stanislawa Nowicki, M. Arch., from the faculty rank of Associate Professor to that of Professor of Architecture. She was the first woman to hold a senior professorship at the School of Fine Arts.

At the Commencement held on 8 February, the University awarded the degree of Master of Landscape Architecture to Marilyn Harriet Johnson. She was the first woman to earn the M. L. Arch. degree at Penn.

At the Commencement held on 11 June, the University awarded the degree of Bachelor of City Planning to Alice Bernice Kalman and Carolyn Joan Sehl. They were the first women to earn the B.C.P. degree at Penn.

Academic year 1958-59 was the first year in which the University published a combined Bulletin for all undergraduate programs of study at Penn. It took the title Undergraduate Catalogue and included the College of Arts and Sciences [for men], the College of Liberal Arts for Women, the five Engineering Schools (Chemical Engineering, Civil Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, and Metallurgical Engineering), the Wharton School, the School of Education, the School of Fine Arts, the School of Nursing, and the School of Allied Medical Professions.

In the academic year 1958-59, the following women held appointments in the standing faculty of the several undergraduate programs of study at Penn:

In the College of Arts and Sciences:

Madeleine M. Joullie, Associate in Chemistry; Malvena Taiz, Associate Professor of Dance and Assistant Professor of Physical Education; Jenneatte P. Nichols, Associate Professor of History; Stella Kramrisch, Professor of the History of Art, Professor of Oriental Studies and Professor of South Asia Regional Studies; Charlotte Epstein, Professor of Human Relations; Virginia K. Henderson, Lecturer in Marriage; Joyce Michell, Associate Professor of Music; Elizabeth F. Flower, Associate Professor of Philosophy; Hildegarde J. Farquhar, Associate Professor of Physical Education; Elizabeth R. Burdick, Assistant Professor of Physical Education; Doris K. Welsh, Assistant Professor of Physical Education; Elizabeth K. Ralph, Associate in Physics; Anna A. Pirscenok, Instructor in Slavic Languages and Literature; and Dorothy M. Spencer, Lecturer in South Asia Regional Studies.

In the five Engineering Schools:

[Clara Johanne] Doris Wilsdorf, B.B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. in Materials Science, all three degrees awarded by the University of Gottingen, and D.Sc., University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa, 1954, was an Associate Professor of Metallurgical Engineering in the School of Engineering and Applied Science. Her research was in the area of solid state physics. She was promoted to full Professor in the 1960-61 academic year. In later years she became University Professor of Applied Science in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at the University of Virginia.

In the Wharton School:

R. Jean Brownlee, Associate in Political Science; Dorothy Swaine Thomas, Professor of Sociology; Eleanor S. Boll, Assistant Professor of Sociology; Althea K. Hottel, Lecturer in Sociology; and Nancy L. Schnerr, Lecturer in Statistics.

In the School of Education:

Mary E. Coleman, Associate Professor of Education; Helen Huus, Associate Professor of Education; Eleanor Dillinger, Assistant Professor of Education; Helen E. Martin, Assistant Professor of Education; Jean Straub, Assistant Professor of Education; Mary M. Lang, Lecturer in Education; Mabel L. Price, Lecturer in Education; Alice K. Watson, Lecturer in Education; and Margaret F. Willson, Lecturer in Education.

In the School of Fine Arts:

Stanislawa Nowicki, Professor of Architecture and Professor of Fine Arts;

In the School of Nursing:

Theresa I. Lynch, Professor of Nursing and Dean of the School; Adaline chase, Associate Professor of Nursing; Mary E. Beam, Assistant Professor of Nursing; Geraldine L. Ellis, Assistant Professor of Nursing; Marth A. Hunscher, Assistant Professor of Nursing; Casmira A. Marciniszyn, Assistant Professor of Nursing; Dorothy R. Marlow, Assistant Professor of Nursing; and Mary D. Shanks, Assistant Professor of Nursing.

In the School of Allied Medical Professions:

Harriet M. Boyd, Assistant Professor of Medical Technology and Director of the Division of Medical Technology; Cornelie A.J. Goldberg, Instructor in Medical Technology; Virginia L. Yonan, Instructor in Medical Technology; Helen S. Willard, Professor of Occupational Therapy; Clare S. Spackman, Associate Professor of Occupational Therapy; Virginia W. Cute, Assistant Professor of Occupational Therapy; Dorothy E. Baethke, Professor of Physical Therapy; Stella Y. Botelho, Associate Professor of Physical Therapy; Eleanor J. Carlin, Associate Professor of Physical Therapy; and Rheta A. Weidenbacker, Associate in Physical Therapy.

1959

In May, Barbara Ann Foster (B.S. in Ed., 1959) was the first recipient of the Althea Kratz Hottel Award. Earlier that spring the University established the Hottel Award as the first women's senior class leadership award. The Hottel Award continues to the present time and honors "intellectual competence, commitment to ideals and principles, and loyalty to the University of Pennsylvania."

At the suggestion of Dean Theresa I. Lynch, President Gaylord P. Harnwell established the Advisory Council of the School of Nursing. The Advisory Council was not an Advisory Board of the Trustees, but an oversight board that existed at the pleasure of the Dean and the President. Its purpose was to "provide such assistance and advice to the officers of the School of Nursing as may be requested from time to time." President Harnwell appointed Ella (Read) Brewster (1898-1998) Chair of the Advisory Council. She was the first woman to chair an oversight committee of the School of Nursing.

At the Commencement held on 10 June, the University awarded the degree of Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering to Marcia Marie Ferris. She was the first woman to earn the B.S. in E.E. degree at Penn.

In June, after twenty-three years as a senior administrative officer at Penn, Althea Kratz Hottel retired from the position of Dean of Women. In recognition of her leadership among women at Penn, the University established the first modern women's senior class leadership award (see first entry in 1959 above).

In July, the University appointed Stella Kramrisch, Ph.D. (Hon. LL.D., 1981), to the senior faculty position of Professor of South Asian Art in the Department of South Asia Regional Studies in the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences. She had previously held the faculty position of Visiting Research Professor of Oriental Studies in the Graduate School, a five-year appointment, effective from July 1954 through June 1959, and supported throughout that period by the Bollingen Foundation.

In August, the University announced the appointment of Laura A. Bornholdt, B.A., M.A., Ph.D., to the senior administrative position of Dean of Women. Prior to accepting her appointment at Penn, Dr. Bornholdt had served as Dean of Sarah Lawrence College in Bronxville, New York. She had earned the degrees of Bachelor of Arts and Master of Arts at Smith College, where she had won election to Phi Beta Kappa, the national honorary society for scholastic excellence. She had earned the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in History at Yale University. Her appointment at Penn included a lectureship in Penn's Department of History. Dr. Bornholdt was appointed to succeed Althea Kratz Hottel, who had retired in June.

In October, the Trustees elected Althea Kratz Hottel a Term Trustees of the University. She had retired from the position of Dean of Women just four months earlier, but volunteered to continue as the head of the fundraising campaign for the new women's residence hall. She was the second woman to serve as a Term Trustee. She was re-elected a Term Trustee in 1964 and served until the expiration of her second term in 1969.

1960

In February, the University appointed Rebecca Jean Brownlee (B.S. in Ed., 1934; M.A., 1936; Ph.D. in Political Science, 1940) to the academic administrator position of Dean of the College of Liberal Arts for Women. She was the first woman to be appointed Dean of that College and the third woman to be named an academic dean at Penn. It should be noted, however, that Dean Brownlee did not hold the customary authority and standing traditionally accorded the office of an academic Dean. Perhaps this was due to the unique organization of the College for Women, which, as stated in the 1960-61 Undergraduate Catalogue, "maintain[ed] no separate faculty but dr[ew] upon the faculties of other schools of the University for its instructional staff." This may explain why the appointment of Dr. Brownlee to the position of Dean was not accompanied by an academic appointment. In May 1959, the University had promoted her to Assistant Professor of Political Science in the Wharton School, but she was the only academic dean at Penn not to be a tenured member of the faculty.

In May, the Trustees elected Lillian G. Burns, B.A., M.A., to the senior administrative position of Assistant Secretary of the University. Prior to her election as Assistant Secretary, Ms. Burns had served in a series of increasingly responsible administrative positions at Penn. She was first employed in 1950 as an assistant to the Dean of Women in charge of women's residences. She advanced, in succession, to Assistant Dean of Women, Assistant to the Business Vice President, and Assistant to the Secretary of the University. In 1959, at the founding of the West Philadelphia Corporation, University President Gaylord P. Harnwell was elected President of the Corporation and Lillian G. Burns was elected Secretary. She was re-elected Secretary in every subsequent year until her departure from Penn in 1969. In October 1968, she was also elected a Director of the West Philadelphia Corporation. In her work with the West Philadelphia Corporation, Lillian Burns was fully engaged in the acquisition of land for the University City Science Center. In October 1962, President Harnwell announced the appointment of Ms. Burns to the position of Associate Planning Coordinator in the Office of the President. In January 1965, President Harnwell announced the promotion of Ms. Burns to the position of Coordinator of Planning for the University. In September 1969, shortly after the retirement of President Harnwell, Lillian Burns left Penn to become Administrator of the American Cities Corporation in Columbia, Maryland. In the years beginning in 1960 and continuing through 1969, Ms. Burns was the highest ranking woman administrative officer in the central administration of the University.

At the Commencement held on 15 June, the University awarded the degree of Bachelor of Science in Chemical Engineering to Leona Frances Wirt. She was the first woman to earn the B.S. in Ch.E. degree at Penn.

Also at the Commencement of June 1960, the University awarded the Annenberg School's degree of Master of Arts in Communications to Susan Barrett Atwood. She was the first woman to earn the M.A. in Comm. at Penn and the only woman in the first graduating class of the Annenberg School.

In November the University opened the new Women's Residence Hall at the northeast corner of Thirty-Fourth and Walnut Streets. It was the first building at Penn designed and constructed exclusively for women students. (The Women's Residence Hall was re-named Hill House in 1965).

Also in November, Wellesley College, in Wellesley, Massachusetts, announced the appointment of Laura Bornholdt as Dean of its College and Professor of History, effective July 1961. Dr. Bornholdt served as Dean of Women at Penn from September 1959 to June 1961.

Also in November, the Graduate School of Medicine promoted Helena Emma Riggs (A.B. 1921, M.D. 1925) from Assistant Professor of Pathology to Professor of Neuropathology in the Department of Pathology. In 1950, she had been the second woman to join the standing faculty in the Graduate School of Medicine. Now she was the first woman to earn tenure in the Graduate School of Medicine and the first to hold a senior professorship in that School.

1961

In January, the University conducted formal dedicatory ceremonies at the Women's Residence Hall. Funding for the $4 million building came principally from the Federal Housing and Home Finance Agency, but the interior design and furnishings were greatly enhanced by the generosity of alumnae and other friends of the University. Althea K. Hottel, Trustee of the University and former Dean of Women, was Chair of the Residence Campaign and Dedication Ceremony. Rheva H. Shryock was President of the Association of Alumnae. Mrs. Shryock presented citations of honorary membership in the Association to Mrs. William S. Peace and Mrs. W.H. Biester, Jr., who had served as Co-Chairs of the Committee for Philadelphia House. These were the non-alumnae friends of the University who contributed funds to the Women's Residence Hall. President Harnwell presented the key to the new Residence to Kathryn Gray, who was President of the Women Students’ Government Association, who, in turn, presented it to Martha Taylor, who was President of the Residents’ Student Council.

Philadelphia House was named for eleven famous Philadelphia women of the past. The eleven women were:

  • Hannah Callowhill Penn, second wife of William Penn, for her service to her country
  • Sarah Franklin Bache, daughter of Benjamin Franklin
  • Rebecca Gratz (1781-1869), community service
  • Sarah Josepha (Buell) Hale (1788-1879), journalism
  • Lucretia Coffin Mott (1793-1880), humanitarian service
  • Mary Cassatt (1844-1926), art
  • Agnes Repplier (1855-1950) (Hon. Litt.D., 1902), literature.
  • Lucy Langdon Williams Wilson (1864-1937), author on and teacher of elementary education
  • Mary Engle Pennington (Ph.D. in Chemistry, 1895), science (in 1908 she became the first head of the new Food Research Laboratory established as a result of the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906)
  • Frances Wister, cultural services
  • Virginia Margaret Alexander (B.S. in Ed., 1920), medicine.

The alumnae of the University contributed the second house. It was named Alumnae House and included a formal lounge, which the Association of Alumnae named the Althea Kratz Hottel Lounge. The third house was named for Frances Holwell, the first woman to direct the 18th century Charity School of the University. The fourth was named for Carrie Burnham Kilgore (LL.B., 1883), the first woman graduate of the Law School of the University.

Finally, four activity rooms in the Women's Residence Hall were named in honor of alumnae:

  • Mary Alice Bennett (Ph.D., 1880), first woman to earn a degree at Penn
  • Caroline B. Kilgore (LL.B., 1883), first woman graduate of the Law School
  • Pauline Wolcott Spencer (A.B., 1908; A.M. in Latin, Sociology, and Psychology, 1910; Ph.D. in Sociology, 1915), first woman to earn the Bachelor of Arts degree at Penn and in 1912, the first President of the Association of Alumnae
  • Sara Yorke Stevenson (Hon. Sc.D., 1894), founder of the University Museum and first woman recipient of an honorary degree at Penn.

The Women's Residence Hall was a celebration of all the achievements of women at Penn from 1753 to 1961. It was intended to be the new center for women's student life at Penn.

At the Commencement held on 5 June, the University awarded the degree of Bachelor of Science in Chemistry to Phyllis Paula Fine. She was the first woman to earn the B.S. in Ch. degree at Penn.

In July, the University announced the appointment of Constance P. Dent, B.A., M.A., Ph.D., to the senior administrative position of Dean of Women. Prior to accepting her appointment at Penn, Dr. Dent was Dean of Women and Associate Professor at Glassboro State College in Glassboro, New Jersey. She earned the degree of Bachelor of Arts in psychology and biology at Bucknell University in 1945; the degree of Master of Arts in psychology from Temple University in 1951; and the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in clinical psychology from Pennsylvania State University in 1958. She had completed her Ph.D. with the assistance of a fellowship awarded her by the American Association of University Women. Althea Kratz Hottel had participated in the award of the fellowship and thought highly of Dr. Dent. In December, the Trustees of Bucknell University elected Dr. Dent a fellow Trustee of the University. Dr. Dent served as Dean of Women at Penn from July 1961 through June 1966, when she accepted an appointment of Professor of Psychology at Kutztown State College (now Kutztown University).

1962

Sharon Lee Ribner, College for Women, Class of 1964, was the first woman to join the staff of the men's student newspaper, the Daily Pennsylvanian. She was a member of the Junior Board in 1962-63 and the Senior Board in 1963-64.

At the Commencement held on 21 May, the University awarded the degree of Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering to Mary Jane Orloski. She was the first woman to earn the B.S. in M.E. degree at Penn.

Also at the Commencement of May 1962, the University awarded the degree of Bachelor of Architectural Engineering to Elizabeth M. Boggs. She was the first woman to earn the B. Arch. Eng. degree at Penn.

1963

The School of Veterinary Medicine promoted Monica Reynolds, B.S., A.B., Ph.D., from Assistant Professor of Physiology to Associate Professor of Physiology in the Department of Animal Biology. She was the first woman to earn tenure in the School of Veterinary Medicine. In 1969 she was promoted to Professor of Physiology, the first woman to hold a senior professorship in the School of Veterinary Medicine.

At the Commencement held on 20 May, the University awarded the degree of Master of Science in Engineering to Judith Ann Maestrelli. She was the first woman to earn the M.S.E. degree at Penn.

Also at the Commencement of May 1963, the University awarded the degree of Master of Science in Nursing to twenty-eight women. These graduates were the first women to earn the M.S.N. degree at Penn.

Also in May, the Trustees appointed a woman Trustee, Katharine Elizabeth McBride, to the first Joint Committee of the Annenberg School of Communications and the Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania. The purpose of this decision-making, executive committee of the Annenberg School was to "discharge the responsibility of the Trustees of the University in the joint operation and control of the educational program." Dr. McBride was the first woman member of the Joint Committee.

In July, the University established the Pennsylvania Program of Continuing Education for Women, which was designed to attract "women beyond college age who have the will and capacity for further study." The program was made possible in its first two years by the Carnegie Corporation of New York, which funded it through substantial grants to the College of Liberal Arts for Women. Virginia Kinsman Henderson (B.S. in Ed., 1930; M.A. in Psychology, 1936) was appointed the first Director of Continuing Education. The first women to enroll in the program began classes in September.

1964

The University announced the merger of the faculties of the School of Medicine and Graduate School of Medicine in a single faculty. The Graduate School of Medicine became the Division of Graduate Medicine of the School of Medicine. The dental courses in basic sciences formerly offered in the School of Medicine, Division of Graduate Medicine, were transferred to the School of Dental Medicine, where they and their faculty became the Division of Advanced Dental Education. The medical and veterinary courses in basic sciences were transferred to the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences. The Division of Graduate Medicine in the School of Medicine offered the degrees of Master of Science in medical, dental, and veterinary clinical specialties. It also continued to offer the Doctor of Science in the clinical specialties of all three disciplines. Within the Division, the Department of Preventive Medicine continued to offer advanced degrees in public health, both the Master of Medical Science and Doctor of Medical Science.

At the time of the merger of the School of Medicine with the Graduate School of Medicine, the following women held appointments in the standing faculty of the Graduate School:

In the Basic Medical Sciences:

Helena Emma Riggs (A.B., 1921; M.D., 1925), Professor of Neuropathology (Instructor, 1929-31; Associate, 1931-35 and 1948-50; Assistant Professor, 1950-60; Professor, 1960-68);

Marilyn E. Hess, B.S. (M.S., 1949; Ph.D. in Pharmacology, 1957), Assistant Professor of Pharmacology (Instructor, 1957-60; Associate, 1960-62; Assistant Professor, 1962-68; Associate Professor, 1968-76; full Professor, 1976-; Lindback Award, 1989);

Nallanna Lakshminarayanaiah, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Pharmacology; Associate Professor of Pharmacology, 1972; and

Stella Y. Botelho (A.B., 1940), M.D., Associate Professor of Physiology and Pharmacology (Instructor, 1949-50; Associate, 1950-53; Assistant Professor, 1954-57; Associate Professor, 1957-69; Professor of Physiology, 1969-85; Professor Emeritus, 1985-present; Alumni Award of Merit, 1968).

In the Medical and Surgical Specialties:

Margaret Gray Wood, B.A., M.D., Assistant Professor of Dermatology (Assistant Professor of Dermatology, 1968-71; Associate Professor of Dermatology (but without tenure), 1971-74; Clinical Professor of Dermatology in the Associated Faculty (without tenure), 1977-80; Clinical Professor of Dermatology, July 1980 only; Professor of Dermatology in the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania in the Standing Faculty - Clinician-Educator - in the School of Medicine, August 1980-);

Leah Shore Finkelstein (B.S. in Ed., 1932; M.D., 1936), Assistant Professor of Radiology (1969-76); Assistant Clinical Professor of Radiology in the Associated Faculty (1976-78); and

Adele K. Friedman, B.A., M.D., M.Sc. (Med.), Clinical Assistant Professor of Radiology (Associate Professor of Radiology (but without tenure), 1972-86; Associate Professor of Radiology in the Associated Faculty, 1986-).

In the Dental Specialties:

Mary Elizabeth Baumann (B.S.N., 1957), Assistant Professor of Oral Histology and Pathology.

In the Veterinary Medical Sciences:

None.

1965

In June, the University appointed Dorothy Ann Mereness, A.B., R.N., M. Litt., Ed.D., to the senior academic administrator position of Dean of the School of Nursing. She was the second woman to be appointed Dean of this School and the fourth woman to be named an academic dean at Penn.

Also in 1965, Zenovia Alice Sochor (A.B., 1965) was the first woman at Penn to be named a Thouron Fellow.

1966

In the spring semester, Penn's undergraduate students elected Barbara Berger (A.B., 1967) the first President of the merged Student Government Association. She thereby became the first woman President of an Ivy League student government. In October 1980, Barbara (Berger) Opotowsky returned to Penn as a Dean's "Visiting Fellow" of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences. She had become a lawyer and was the first woman to head New York City's Better Business Bureau.

In May, the University announced the appointment of Alice F. Emerson, B.A., Ph.D., to the senior administrative position of Acting Dean of Women and the faculty position of Assistant Professor of Political Science. Prior to accepting her appointment at Penn, Dr. Emerson was a Lecturer in Political Science at Bryn Mawr College.

In November, the Trustees elected Dr. Emerson to the position of Dean of Women. In April 1969, the Trustees changed the title of Dean of Women to Dean of Students. Alice Emerson was the first woman at Penn to hold the title of Dean of Students.

1967

At the Commencement held on 22 May, the University awarded the degree of Bachelor of Science in Metallurgical Engineering to Anne Judith Apter. She was the first woman to earn the B.S. in Metal. E. at Penn.

Also at the Commencement of 1967, the University awarded the Wharton School's degree of Master of Science in Accounting to Virginia Leigh Swope. She was the first woman to earn the M.S. in Accounting degree at Penn and the only woman in the first class of Wharton School graduates to earn this degree.

1968

After more than fifty years of separate events, the women's and men's Hey Day ceremonies were merged in a single, co-educational program. During the traditional Hey Day observances, the University conferred awards and honors on its most accomplished undergraduate students.

In December, the Trustees established the "Professional Board for the School of Veterinary Medicine" and elected fourteen persons as Associate Trustees of the University with membership on this professional board. Two members of the first Board were women: Marietta Springer Patterson ("Mrs. William D. Patterson") and Ella A. Widener Wetherill ("Mrs. Cortright Wetherill"). They were the first women whose oversight responsibilities were sought solely for the benefit of the School of Veterinary Medicine.

1969

In January, University President Gaylord Probosco Harnwell announced his intention to retire in September 1970. William L. Day, Chairman of the Trustees, formed a Search Committee to Advise the Trustees on the Selection of a University President. The search committee was composed of seventeen members, including seven Trustees, five senior members of the standing faculty, and five students. Cathy R. Riegelman, a member of the Class of 1970 in the College for Women, was the only woman appointed to the Committee. She was the first woman to serve on a presidential search committee at Penn. The Committee completed its work and reported its recommendations to the Trustees in December.

In March, Rona Meryl Zevin (A.B., 1970; M. in City Planning, 1971) was elected Co-Chair of the Student Committee on Undergraduate Education (SCUE). Founded in 1965, SCUE was an organization of undergraduate students interested in the reform of the curriculum. Women were eligible for membership and all officer positions in SCUE from the date of its establishment. Rona Zevin served as Co-Chair with Sanford T. Colb. The first woman to be sole Chair of SCUE was Adele Mary Lindenmeyr (A.B., 1971), who succeeded Zevin and Colb in March, 1970. Adele Lindenmeyr was also elected a member of Phi Beta Kappa.

In April, Ellen Gail Cohen (A.B., 1969) was the first recipient of the Gaylord P. Harnwell Award. Ellen Harris Gordon (A.B., 1969) and Linda Joy Plotnick (A.B., 1969) were the joint recipients of the first David R. Goddard Award. Earlier that spring the University had established the Harnwell and Goddard awards as the second and third women's senior class leadership awards. Both the Harnwell and the Goddard award continue to the present time.

Also in April, the Trustees changed the title of Dean of Women to Dean of Students. Dr. Alice F. Emerson, who had been Dean of Women, now became the first woman at Penn - and the first woman at an Ivy League institution - to be Dean of Students. As Dean of Students, Dr. Emerson was Penn's chief student affairs officer and her responsibilities were equivalent to those of the present-day Vice Provost for University Life. She served the University as Dean of Students for six years, until she was elected President of Wheaton College in Massachusetts, the first woman President of Wheaton College. In 1975, Alice Emerson's final year at Penn, the Dean of Students was responsible for the management and performance of twelve distinct offices of student affairs at Penn:

  • Fellowship Information (continued in the present day by the Center for Undergraduate Research and Fellowships)

  • Fraternity Affairs (continued in the present day by the Office of Fraternity and Sorority Affairs)

  • Houston Hall (continued in the present day as part of Perelman Quadrangle)

  • International Services (continued in the present day as part of the Office of International Programs)

  • Performing Arts Activities (continued in the present day as Student Performing Arts)

  • Residential Life (continued in the present day as College Houses and Academic Services)

  • Student Activities Office (continued in the present day as the Office of Student Life)

  • Study Programs Abroad (continued in the present day as part of the Office of International Programs)

  • Supportive Services (continued in the present day as the Office of Academic Support)

  • University Counseling Service (continued in the present day as the Office of Counseling and Psychological Services)

  • Vocational Advising Center for the Health Professions and Pre-Law (continued in the present day as part of the Office of Career Services)

  • and the Women's Center (continued in the present day by the same name).

Dr. Emerson was the last woman at Penn to hold the title of Dean of Women. She was also the only person at Penn ever to hold the title of Dean of Students. On her departure from Penn in June 1975, the Office of Dean of Students was combined with that of the Vice-Provost for Undergraduate Studies to form the Office of Vice-Provost for Undergraduate Studies and University Life. In September 1975 the University appointed Patricia Ann McFate to the position of Vice-Provost for Undergraduate Studies and University Life.

At the Commencement held on 19 May, the University awarded the degree of Master of Science in Engineering for Graduate Work in Computer and Information Science to Elaine J. Weyuker, Carol Faith Lieb, Carol Ann Persons, and Ruth Virginia Powers. They were the first women to earn the M.S.E. in Computer and Information Science degree at Penn. Elaine J. Weyuker had completed the academic requirements and earned the degree effective 9 August 1968. She was the only woman among the first class of Electrical Engineering graduates to earn this degree. The degrees awarded to the other three women were effective 19 May 1969.

In September, the University appointed Martha A. Field, A.B., J.D., to the faculty position of Assistant Professor of Law in the Law School, effectively retroactively to 1 July 1969. She was the first woman to join the standing faculty in the Law School. In 1973 she was promoted to Associate Professor and became the first woman to earn tenure at the Law School. In 1977 she was promoted to Professor of Law, the first woman to hold a senior professorship at the Law School.

Also in September, Assistant Professor Elizabeth Kirk Rose, President of the Women's Faculty Club, announced that an ad hoc committee of the Club would conduct a study on the status of women at the University of Pennsylvania. Dr. Rose appointed Dwight B. McNair Scott, Associate Professor of Biochemistry in the Department of Animal Biology, School of Veterinary Medicine, to chair the survey committee. Dr. Scott (a woman, who had been promoted to Associate Professor on 1 July) announced that the committee mailed a two-page questionnaire to approximately 800 women on the faculty and administrative staff. The committee reported its findings a year later, in October 1970.

Also in September, Judith Linda Teller (B.S. in Econ., 1971) was elected the first woman Editor-in-Chief of the Daily Pennsylvanian.

1970

The Faculty Affairs Committee of the University Council established the ad hoc Committee on the Status of Women. Ten months later the Committee reported that the total number of fully-affiliated University faculty of professorial rank was 1,091, but only 77 (or 7.0%) of the total were women and that only 11 women held full professorships (2.5% of the total number of senior faculty). Among fully-affiliated officers of instruction at the lower ranks, however, women held 81 (or 38.2%) of the 212 appointments of lecturers, instructors, and other positions. In addition, the total number of standing faculty in clinical medicine was 329, but only 24 (or 6.8%) were women and only 2 women held full professorships (1.7% of the total number of senior faculty).

Four of the thirteen women who held appointments as full professors have been identified above:

  • Dorothy E. Baethke, Professor of Physical Therapy and Director of the Division of Physical Therapy in the School of Allied Medical Professions (1950)

  • Stanislawa Nowicki, Professor of Architecture in the Department of Architecture in the Graduate School of Fine Arts (1958)

  • Stella Botelho, Professor of Physiology in the Department of Physiology of the School of Medicine (1969)

  • Monica Reynolds, Professor of Physiology in the Department of Animal Biology in the School of Veterinary Medicine (1969).

The others included:

  • Mary Elisabeth Coleman, A.B., M.A., Ph.D., Professor of Education, who had come to the School of Education in 1945 as an Assistant Professor of Elementary Education, was promoted to Associate Professor in 1955, and was promoted to full Professor in 1967;

  • Ann Louise Strong, B.A., LL.B., Professor of Regional Planning and Director of the Institute for Environmental Studies, who had come to the Graduate School of Fine Arts in 1963 as a Research Associate in the Institute for Urban Studies, was promoted to Research Associate Professor in 1965, and was promoted to full Professor in 1968;

  • Mildred Cohn, B.A., Ph.D., Professor of Biophysics and Physical Biochemistry in the Department of Biophysics and Physical Biochemistry, who had come to the School of Medicine in 1960 as an Associate Professor of Biophysics and Physical Biochemistry and was promoted to full Professor in 1961; the University awarded her the honorary degree of Doctor of Science in 1984;

  • Dorothy Ann Mereness, A.B., R.N., M. Litt., Ed.D., who had been appointed Professor of Nursing and Dean of the School of Nursing when she arrived at Penn in 1965;

  • Renee Berg, M.S.W., (D.S.W., 1962), who was promoted to Associate Professor of Social Case Work in 1966, and was promoted to Professor of Social Casework in 1968;

  • Tybel Bloom (M.S.W., 1944; D.S.W., 1960), who was promoted to Associate Professor of Social Case Work in 1966, and was promoted to Professor of Social Work in 1968

  • Gertrude S. Henle, M.D., Professor of Virology in Pediatrics, who had come to the School of Medicine in 1937 as an Assistant Instructor and Associate in the Department of Microbiology, promoted to Instructor in Bacteriology in 1941; was promoted to Assistant Professor of Virology in 1951, and was promoted to full Professor of Virology in Pediatrics in 1965

  • Renee C. Fox, B.A., Ph.D., who had been appointed Professor of Sociology in Psychiatry when she arrived at the School of Medicine in 1969. In 1978 she was appointed the first Walter Annenberg Professor of Social Sciences.

The School of Dental Medicine promoted Phoebe S. Leboy, B.A., Ph.D., from Assistant Professor of Biochemistry to Associate Professor of Biochemistry. She was the first woman to earn tenure at the School of Dental Medicine. In 1976 she was promoted to Professor of Biochemistry, the first woman to hold a senior professorship at the School of Dental Medicine.

At the Commencement held on 18 May, the University awarded the Graduate School of Fine Arts degree of Master of Regional Planning to Jeanne Chase Livaudis, Susan Brooks Morris, and Sandra Ruth Spears. They were the first women to earn the M.R.P. degree at Penn.

1971

On Friday, 15 January, the Trustees elected Marietta Endicott Peabody Tree (A.B., 1940; LL.D., 1964), former United States Representative to the Trusteeship Council of the United Nations, and Jacqueline Grennan Wexler, President of Hunter College of the City University of New York, to five-year terms as Term Trustees of the University. They were the third and fourth women, respectively, to serve the University as Term Trustees and the first women Trustees since the retirement of Althea Kratz Hottel in 1969. They were re-elected Term Trustees in 1976. Ambassador Tree served as a Term Trustee until the expiration of her second five-year term in 1981. By February 1979 President Wexler had been appointed a member of the Executive Committee of the Trustees, the second woman to serve on the Executive Committee and the first since the retirement of Katherine Elizabeth McBride, seventeen years earlier. She was re-appointed a member of the Executive Committee in 1980 and re-elected a member of the Committee in 1981 and 1982. She declined re-nomination in 1983. In May 1979 Penn awarded her the honorary degree of Doctor of Humane Letters, in recognition of her extraordinary achievements as President of Hunter College. In December of that same year, President Wexler was appointed a member of the Consultative Committee for the Selection of a President and Vice Chairman of the Committee. She was one of two women Trustees to serve on the presidential search committee (the other woman Trustee was Dr. Gloria Twine Chisum, who was appointed to the Consultative Committee at the same time as President Wexler). Dr. Chisum and President Wexler were the second and third women at Penn to serve the University as members of a presidential search committee. In December 1980 President Wexler was elected a Life Trustee, the first woman to serve the University as a Life Trustee. In June 1991 she was elected an Emeritus Trustee. She was the third woman to be accorded that honor (following Leonore Annenberg and Margaret Redfield Mainwaring).

On Saturday, 16 January, President Martin Meyerson, in remarks delivered at the Founders Day luncheon, announced that the United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare had asked Penn, along with all other colleges and universities receiving Federal funds, to establish an affirmative action program to promote equal employment opportunities for women. He noted that there were, at that time, only ten women at Penn who held full professorships and none in either the College of Arts and Sciences or the College of Liberal Arts for Women. Meyerson announced the establishment of an Equal Opportunity Office at Penn to develop and implement a University-wide Affirmative Action Plan, "to ensure equality for women and for members of minority groups."

In February, the Sphinx senior honor society announced that five women had been elected to membership: Judith Linda Teller (B.S. in Econ., 1971), Sharon Slotkin Hardy (A.B., 1971; M.S. in Ed., 1972), Adele Mary Lindenmyer (A.B., 1971), Miriam Harriet Labbok (A.B., 1970), and Barbara Zerline Perman (A.B., 1971). They were the first members of Sphinx.

In April, the Friars Senior Society announced that six women had been elected to membership: Doris Suzanne Cochran-Fikes (A.B., 1972), Claudia Cohen (A.B., 1972), Marcy Miller Englebrecht (A.B., 1972), Linda Joy Magoon (A.B., 1972), Diane Wellins Moul (A.B., 1972; M.B.A., 1975), Anne Whitman (A.B., 1972; M.S. in Ed., 1972). They were the first women members of the Friars Senior Society.

Mary-Elizabeth Tondreau (A.B., 1971) was the first woman Editor-in-Chief of the combined men's and women's undergraduate yearbook, The Record. It should be noted, however, that while Ms. Tondreau held the title Editor-in-Chief, she shared it with a male counterpart. The first woman who was sole Editor-in-Chief of The Record was Caren A. Litvin (A.B., 1978), who directed the publication of the 1978 issue of The Record.

Jean Andrus Crockett, Professor of Finance in the Wharton School, was elected Chair-elect of the Faculty Senate. She was the first woman to chair the Faculty Senate at Penn.

Norma Levy Shapiro (LL.B., 1951) was elected a member of the Professional School Board of Law. She was the first woman to serve as an overseer of the Law School.

1972

In May, the General Alumni Society elected Ione Braunstein Apfelbaum Strauss (A.B., 1954) to a one-year term as President of the Society. She was the first woman to serve the 130,000-member General Alumni Society as its chief executive. As President of the General Alumni Society, she was also an ex-officio Trustee of the University. She was therefore the first woman to be elected by the General Alumni Society to serve the University as a Trustee (but elected by the Directors of the Society, not by the alumni generally, as in the case of Alumni Trustees). In May 1973, she was re-elected to a second one-year term as President of the General Alumni Society and in May 1974, she was re-elected to a third-one year term. In her role as President of the General Alumni Society, she served as an ex-officio Trustee until the end of her third term in June 1975.

The School of Engineering and Applied Science appointed Ruzena Bajcsy, M.S.E.E., Ph.D., to the faculty position of Assistant Professor of Electrical Engineering. She was the second woman to join the standing faculty of the School of Engineering and Applied Science (and the first since the departure of Professor Doris Kuhlmann-Wilsdorf, in 1963). In 1977 the School promoted Dr. Bajcsy to Associate Professor of Computer and Information Science. She was the second woman to earn tenure in the School of Engineering and Applied Science. In 1984 the School promoted her to Professor of Computer and Information Science, the second woman to hold a senior professorship at the School of Engineering and Applied Science. In 1985 the School appointed her to the academic administrative position of Chair of the Department of Computer and Information Science. She was the first woman to hold an academic administrative position in the School of Engineering and Applied Science.

1973

In January, the University's College of Thematic Studies offered the first Women's Studies program, an interdisciplinary set of ten courses developed by the Penn Women's Studies Planners. In September, the University appointed Elsa Greene, B.A., M.A., Ph.D., to the new academic administrator position of Coordinator of Women's Studies. Dr. Greene became a member of the staff in the Office of the Dean, College of Liberal Arts for Women, with responsibility for overseeing continuing development of the program. Prior to accepting her appointment at Penn, Dr. Greene had been a Visiting Lecturer in American Studies at the University of Minnesota, where she was one of the founders of a women's studies program and taught its pilot course.

In April, an ad hoc group of women conducted a "Stop Rape" sit-in at College Hall and presented ten demands to the University administration "for security improvements, education to prevent rape, and medical, legal, and psychological support for victims." The number of demonstrators "ranged from 200 by day to 20 overnight" and included students, faculty, and staff. Negotiations focused on the design of a proposed Women's Center at Penn and the hiring of a security specialist dedicated full time to women's safety issues, as well as on physical plant improvements aimed at improving campus safety, such as new outdoor lighting, additional emergency telephones, and expansion of University bus service.

Also in April, the University appointed Louise Proehl Shoemaker, B.A. (M.S.W., 1947; D.S.W., 1965) to the academic administrator position of Dean of the School of Social Work. She was the second woman to be appointed Dean of this School and the fifth woman to be named an academic dean at Penn.

In May, Phyllis R. Rackin, who had been appointed Assistant Professor of English in 1964, brought suit against the University, alleging discriminatory action on the part of the University against her. In 1969 the University had conducted a review of Dr. Rackin's qualifications and recommendations for tenure in the standing faculty of the Department of English in the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences. The faculty of the Department of English voted to recommend promotion to the rank of Associate Professor with tenure, but the Provost's Staff Conference voted against promotion. The Chairman of the Department of English reported to Dr. Rackin the termination of her appointment, effective 1 July 1970. At the September 1973 meeting of the Executive Board of the Trustees, the University's legal counsel cautioned the Trustees that "this [was] a particularly important case in the light of other possible class actions which could be instituted."

At the Commencement held on 21 May, the University awarded the honorary degree of Master of Arts to Mary Eakin Crooks, an administrative assistant to Provost Eliot Stellar, who had become "the right arm of Provosts" by serving on the staffs of seven Provosts, one President, and one academic Vice President over the course of her forty-nine-year career at Penn.

Also at the Commencement of 1973, the University awarded the degree of Master of Science in Engineering for Graduate Work in Biomedical Electronic Engineering to Barbara Ann Majer. She was the first woman to earn the M.S.E. in Biomedical Electronic Engineering degree at Penn.

Also at the Commencement of 1973, the University awarded the Wharton School's degree of Master of Public Administration to Jerrianne Hammock. She was the first woman to earn the M.P.A. degree at Penn.

In September, the University appointed Sharon M. Grossmann, B.A., to the new administrative position of Coordinator of the Women's Center. Ms. Grossmann became a member of the staff in the Office of the Dean of Students, with responsibility for directing the new Women's Center, located in Room 110, Logan Hall. Prior to accepting her appointment at Penn, Ms. Grossmann had been one of the organizers of Radio Free Women, a group which produced a weekly broadcast on WUHY-FM radio. She had also developed other local feminist projects, such as the Women's Cultural Festival of 1971.

Also in September, the University appointed Yvonne B. Haskins, B.S., to the new administrative position of Security Specialist. Ms. Haskins became a member of the staff in the Office of Security and Safety, located in the Quadrangle residence halls. Prior to accepting her appointment at Penn, Ms. Haskins had been Assistant Director of the Pennsylvania Law and Justice Institute; Executive Director of West Mt. Airy Neighbors, Inc.; and a Juvenile Aid Officer with the Philadelphia Police Department.

In October, the General Alumni Society elected Margaret Elizabeth Redfield Mainwaring (B.S. in Ed., 1947; LL.D., 1985) to a five-year term as an Alumni Trustee. She was the first woman to serve the University as an Alumni Trustee (elected by all alumni) and the second woman to serve as a Trustee representing of the General Alumni Society. She had previously served the University as President of the Alumnae Association and President of the Women's Class of 1947. At the time of her election to the Board of Trustees, she was a Vice President of the General Alumni Society. She was a recipient of the Alumni Award of Merit. In October 1978, at the conclusion of her term as Alumni Trustee, her fellow Trustees elected her one of the Term Trustees. She was the sixth woman to serve the University as a Term Trustee. In June 1980 she was elected a member of the Executive Committee of the Trustees. She was the third woman to serve on the Executive Committee. She was re-elected a Term Trustee in 1983 and served until the expiration of her second term in 1988. In June 1984, she was elected Vice Chairman of the Board of Trustees. She was re-elected Vice Chairman in each subsequent year until June 1988, just prior to the expiration of her second term. She was the first woman to serve as Vice Chairman of the Board of Trustees. In May 1985 the University awarded her the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws in recognition of her leadership as Chair of the Board of Overseers of the School of Nursing. In January 1989 she was elected an Emeritus Trustee, only the second woman to be accorded that honor (and just seven months after the Trustees elected Leonore Annenberg the first).

1974

Holly O'Neil Andrus (A.B., 1974) was the first woman President of the Kite and Key Society.

In January, President Martin Meyerson appointed Margaret Boerner Beckman, B.A., Ph.D., to the administrative position of Assistant to the President, with responsibility for both general administration and special projects. She was the first woman to hold a senior staff position in the Office of the President during the presidency of Martin Meyerson. Prior to accepting her appointment at Penn, Dr. Beckman was a member of the faculty in the Department of English at Temple University and Secretary to the English Renaissance section of the Northeast Modern Languages Association.

In May, the Trustees elected Gloria Twine Chisum, B.A., M.A. (Ph.D. in Psychology, 1960; LL.D., 1994), a research psychologist and head of vision laboratory crew systems at the U.S. Naval Air Development Center in Warminster, Bucks County, Pennsylvania, one of the Term Trustees of the University. She was the first African American woman to serve the University as a Term Trustee. She was re-elected a Term Trustee in 1979 and served until the expiration of her second term in 1984. In December 1979 she was appointed a member of the Consultative Committee for the Selection of a President, one of two women Trustees to serve on the presidential search committee (the other woman being Jacqueline Grennan Wexler, who was appointed to the Consultative Committee at the same time as Dr. Chisum). Dr. Chisum and President Wexler were the second and third women at Penn to serve the University as a member of a presidential search committee. In 1982 she was elected a member of the Executive Committee. She was the fifth woman to serve on the Executive Committee. In June 1984, when Dr. Chisum's second five-year term expired, the Trustees adopted a "Resolution of Appreciation" in her honor, commending her for her service on the Academic Policy, Nominating, and Student Life committees of the Board, for her service as a founding member of the Boards of Overseer of the School of Arts and Sciences, and also, for her service as a member of and the chairperson of the Board of Overseers of the School of Social Work. In October 1985 the Trustees elected Dr. Chisum a Term Trustee for the third time, her five-year term to begin in January 1986. In June 1986 she was re-elected a member of the Executive Committee. In June 1988 she was elected Vice Chairman of the Board of Trustees. She was re-elected Vice Chairman in June 1989 and in each subsequent year until her retirement from the Board in 2000. She was the second woman to serve the University as Vice Chairman of the Board of Trustees. In January 1991 she was elected a Charter Trustee of the University (the name "Charter" having replaced "Life" Trustee in June 1989). She was the third woman to serve the University as a Charter Trustee. In May 1993 she was appointed a member of the Consultative Committee for the Selection of a President. She thereby became the only woman ever to serve on two Presidential Search Committees at Penn. In May 1994 the University awarded her the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws in recognition of her leadership as chair of the Commission on Strengthening the Community. In June 2000, as her active service to the University came to a conclusion, the Trustees adopted a "Resolution of Appreciation and Designation as Emerita Trustee" in her honor. She was commended for her commitment to philanthropy and volunteerism, for her twelve years of service as Vice Chair of the Board of Trustees, for her leadership in heading the work of the Commission on Strengthening the Community, for her leadership as chair of the Board of Overseers for the Graduate School of Education and also as chair of the Board of Overseers for the School of Social Work, and for her founding role in the Brister Society of the University. She was the fifth woman elected an Emeritus Trustee.

In June, the Trustees amended the Statutes to establish a new class of Trustees, to be known as "Young Alumni Trustees" and to be elected by the General Alumni Society for terms not to exceed three years. The first of the two Young Alumni Trustees was to be "a person who has received an undergraduate degree in course at the University." The second was to be "a person who has received a graduate or professional degree in course at the University." The Trustees stipulated that the Young Alumni Trustees be graduates who had received their degrees within three years of the date of their election.

In October, the General Alumni Society elected Laureine Knight (A.B., 1973), a student at New York University Law School, to a three-year term as one of the two Young Alumni Trustees. She was the first woman to serve as a Young Alumni Trustee. Ms. Knight had been the 1973 winner of the David R. Goddard Award for leadership among the undergraduate women at Penn. She attended her first meeting of the Trustees in January 1975 and served as an Undergraduate Alumni Trustee until the end of her three-year term in December 1977.

1975

In January, the Trustees established the Board of Overseers for the Graduate School of Fine Arts and elected a woman Trustee, Marietta Peabody Endicott Tree (Hon. LL.D., 1964), the first Chair of the Board. Dr. Tree was therefore both the first woman member and the first Chair of this Board of Overseers.

In February, after "several months" of planning, the Onyx Senior Honor Society was organized to recognize African American members of the Senior Class who had been outstanding in academics, athletics, extracurricular activities, and community and University service. This student organization admitted both men and women from the time of its inception. The first group of members totalled twenty-four, nine of whom were African American women. A University press release, dated 21 February 1975, provided the following names of "first" women members of Onyx:

  • Wanza Valeria Bates Brown (B.S. in Econ., 1975)
  • Olivia Ann Billups Cureton (B.S. in Ed., 1975)
  • Jessica Mae Gibson (B.S. in Econ., 1975)
  • Sharon Celeste Moorer Harris (B.S. in Ed., 1975)
  • Leta Blanche McMillan Johnson (A.B., 1975)
  • Linda Lee Walker McIntyre (A.B., 1975)
  • Lauri Richelle Miller Michel (A.B., 1975)
  • Magdalena Gaye Morris (A.B., 1975)
  • Jeannette Elizabeth South-Paul (B.S. in Med. Tech., 1975)

In February, the Trustees elected Ludmila ("Lida") Freeman an Associate Trustee of the University with membership on the Board of Overseers of the Wharton School. Dr. Freeman was President of H. Freeman and Sons, Inc. of Philadelphia. She was the first woman to serve on the Board of Overseers of the Wharton School. She retired from the Board in 1978.

The College of Liberal Arts for Women merged with the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, the College of Arts and Sciences [for Men], and four social science departments in the Wharton School - Economics, Political Science, Regional Science, and Sociology - to form the new School of Arts and Sciences. Associate Professor R. Jean Brownlee, Dean of the College for Women, was appointed Dean of Academic Advising Services in the new School. She retired two years later, in June 1977.

At the Commencement held on 17 May, the University awarded the degree of Master of Science in Engineering for Graduate Work in Chemical and Biochemical Engineering to Carol Louise Worman. She was the first woman to earn the M.S.E. in Chemical and Biochemical Engineering degree at Penn.

Also at the Commencement of 1975, the University awarded the degree of Master of Science in Engineering for Graduate Work in Systems Engineering to Kathryn Elaine George. She was the first woman to earn the M.S.E. in Systems Engineering degree at Penn.

In August, the University and former Assistant Professor Phyllis R. Rackin settled out of court the litigation brought by Dr. Rackin against the University in 1973. A December 1974 ruling by the U.S. District Court found "that the University [was] engaged in state action and that this [had] profound implications in presenting a challenge to the University's authority to select and promote members of the faculty." As a direct result, in January 1975, the University's legal counsel reported to the full Board of Trustees that "strenuous efforts [were being] made to reach a fair compromise with the plaintiff." The terms of the August settlement included agreement by the University to the promotion of Dr. Rackin to the tenured faculty position of Associate Professor of English in General Honors, effective 1 July 1975, as well as the payment of all legal fees incurred in the litigation. The effect of this litigation was the opening to women of a more balanced and equitable set of procedures to be followed in the appointment and promotion of faculty at Penn.

In September, Provost Eliot Stellar appointed Patricia Ann McFate, B.A., M.A., Ph.D., to the senior academic administrator position of Vice-Provost for Undergraduate Studies and University Life. She was the first woman to hold the position of Vice-Provost at Penn. The University simultaneously appointed Dr. McFate to the faculty positions of Professor of Technology and Society in the College of Engineering and Applied Science and Associate Professor of Folklore, with a secondary appointment of Associate Professor of English. Prior to accepting her appointment at Penn, Dr. McFate had been Associate Chancellor for Academic Affairs and Associate Professor of English at the University of Illinois at Chicago Circle. In 1978 Dr. McFate left Penn to accept an appointment as Deputy Chairman of the National Endowment for the Humanities, where she served in 1981. In 1998 she was Senior Scientist and Program Director at the Center for National Security Negotiations of the Science Applications International Corporation, a systems engineering company located in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

1976

100 years after women first enrolled in the College as "special students," the University had become fully co-educational. Penn's thirteen schools were open to men and women "on equal terms" and women were enrolled in every degree program offered by the University. Women were likewise members of the standing faculty in all thirteen schools. Women had also entered the field of senior academic administration and served with distinction as deans of the schools of the College of Women, Nursing and Social Work. One of the two Vice Provosts of the University was a women and women held two of the senior staff positions in the Office of the President. Five women were Trustees of the University.

In September, the University appointed Claire Muriel Mintzer Fagin, B.S., M.A., Ph.D., to the senior academic administrator position of Dean of the School of Nursing. She was the third woman to be appointed Dean of this School and the sixth woman to be named an academic dean at Penn. Prior to accepting her appointment at Penn, Dr. Fagin had held the positions of Professor and Chairman of the Department of Nursing at the Herbert H. Lehman College in the City University of New York and Director of the Health Professions Institute at the Herbert H. Lehman College - Montefiore Hospital and Medical Center. Dr. Fagin served as Dean of the School of Nursing until August 1991, when she was elected Dean Emerita and Leadership Professor in the School of Nursing. In April 1993, the Trustees appointed her Interim President and Chief Executive of the University (see entry for 1993 below).

1977

With the promotion of Dr. Ruzena Bajcsy to Associate Professor of Computer and Information Science in the School of Engineering and Applied Science, women held tenured faculty positions in each and every standing faculty at Penn, for the first time in the history of the University of Pennsylvania.

In April, Kathleen Alice Bell Lee (A.B., 1977) was the first recipient of the Rebecca Jean Brownlee Award. This was the fourth women's senior class leadership award, thereby creating equal numbers of men's and women's senior leadership awards. The Brownlee Award was named in honor of the first woman Dean of the College of Liberal Arts for Women. Dr. Brownlee (B.S. in Ed., 1934; A.M. in Political Science, 1936; Ph.D. in Political Science, 1942; Hon. LL.D., 1986) was Dean from 1960 until the College was merged into the School of Arts and Sciences in 1975.

Ellen Gail Cohen (A.B., 1969) was the first recipient of the Gaylord P. Harnwell Award. Ellen Harris Gordon (A.B., 1969) and Linda Joy Plotnick (A.B., 1969) were the joint recipients of the first David R. Goddard Award. Earlier that spring the University had established the Harnwell and Goddard awards as the second and third women's senior class leadership awards. Both the Harnwell and the Goddard award continue to the present time.

In June, the University appointed Ruth Leventhal (B.S., 1961; Ph.D. in Veterinary Medicine, 1973), to the academic administrator position of Acting Dean of the School of Allied Medical Professions. She was the first woman to be appointed Dean of this School and the seventh woman to be named an academic dean at Penn. At the time of her appointment, Dr. Leventhal had been an Assistant Professor of Medical Technology in the School of Allied Medical Professions since January 1974. She also had a secondary appointment as Assistant Professor of Parasitology in the Department of Pathobiology in the School of Veterinary Medicine and a tertiary appointment as an Assistant Professor of Pathology in the School of Medicine. In July 1979 the University promoted Acting Dean Leventhal to Associate Professor of Medical Technology in the School of Allied Medical Professions and Associate Professor of Parasitology in Pathobiology in the School of Veterinary Medicine. Both promotions, however, were explicitly limited to just two years, because in January 1977 the Trustees had voted to close the School of Allied Medical Professions effective 30 June 1981. In April 1981 Dr. Leventhal announced that she had accepted the offer of Hunter College, in New York City, to become Dean of its School of Health Sciences, effective 1 September. At the Commencement held on 18 May, the University awarded Dr. Leventhal the earned degree of Master of Business Administration even as she, in her role as Acting Dean, conferred the degrees earned by the final graduating class of the School of Allied Medical Professions.

In September, President Martin Meyerson appointed Janis Irene Somerville, B.A., M.B.A., to the senior administrative position of Secretary of the University. She was the first woman to hold the position of Secretary of the University and the first woman to serve as one of the Statutory Officers of the University. Prior to accepting her appointment at Penn, Dr. Somerville had been Secretary of the Graduate Record Examinations Board of the Educational Testing Service in Princeton, New Jersey.

Also in September, President Martin Meyerson appointed Linda Bradley Salamon, B.A., A.M., Ph.D., to the administrative position of Executive Assistant to the President. She was the first woman to hold the position of director of the Office of the President. Prior to accepting her appointment at Penn, Dr. Salamon had been Dean of Students at Wells College. In 1979 Salamon left Penn for Washington University in St. Louis, where she held the positions of Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences and Professor of English. In 1992 she moved on to George Washington University (GWU), in Washington, D.C., where she also served as Dean of Arts and Sciences before being appointed Interim Vice President for Academic Affairs for the academic year 1995-96. She returned to the GWU faculty in 1996, where, in 2001, she is Professor of English.

Also in September, the corporate separation of Graduate Hospital from the University of Pennsylvania became effective. This step concluded a process which began in 1964, when the faculty of the Graduate School of Medicine was merged into the School of Medicine (see above).

1978

In March, Sheryl Y. George-McAlpine founded the United Minorities Council.

In May, the University graduated the last class of the three-year School of Nursing of the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania. All nursing education at Penn was brought under the School of Nursing, which offered the degrees of Bachelor of Science in Nursing and Master of Science in Nursing.

Also in May, the General Alumni Society elected Ann Elizabeth Kelley (A.B., 1976), who was then a Thouron Scholar at Trinity College, in Cambridge, England, to a three-year term as one of the two Young Alumni Trustees. She was the second woman to serve the University as an Undergraduate Young Alumni Trustee. The General Alumni Society simultaneously elected Nina Ellen Robinson Vitow (A.B., 1970; M.B.A., 1976), President of the Robinson Home Security Company, to a three-year term as the second of the two Young Alumni Trustees. She was the first woman to serve the University as a Graduate Young Alumni Trustee. Both Ms. Kelley and Ms. Vitow served until the expiration of their terms, in May 1981.

During the fall semester, women students founded Lesbians at Penn (LAP).

In December, the University honored twenty-five women who had earned the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at Penn between 1928 and 1948.

1979

In January, the University amended its non-discrimination policy to prohibit discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation. By March, Margaret Helen ("Maggie") Childs (Ph.D., May 1983) had emerged as a leader of the Lesbians at Penn (LAP). In the spring of 1980, LAP merged with its male counterpart, Gays at Penn (GAP). The combined student organization took the name Lesbians and Gays at Penn (LGAP) and was formally recognized by the Student Activities Council (SAC). In the fall of 1981, the first woman to lead the combined LGAP was Teresa J. Grubbs (A.B., 1983).

In May, the Trustees established the School of Dental Medicine Board of Overseers and elected fifteen members to the first Board. One of the fifteen was a woman. She was Jeanne Craig Sinkford, D.D.S., Ph.D., then Dean of the School of Dentistry of Howard University in Washington, D.C. The Trustees elected Dr. Sinkford an Associate Trustee of the University for the duration of her appointment to the Board of Overseers. In 1991, she became a Special Assistant at the American Association of Dental Schools (AADS). She retired from the Dental Medicine Board of Overseers in 1986. Jeanne Craig Sinkford was the first woman and the first African American woman to serve the University as a member of the Board of Overseers of the School of Dental Medicine.

In June, President Martin Meyerson appointed Janis Irene Somerville, who had served as Secretary of the Corporation since September 1977, to the senior administrative position of Vice Provost for University Life. She was the second woman to serve as a Vice Provost at Penn. In 1989, after leaving Penn, Dr. Somerville founded the Philadelphia Schools Collaborative, a joint venture of area foundations and the School District of Philadelphia. In 1994, she moved to Maryland to develop Maryland's Partnership for Teaching and Learning K-16. In 1997, she became Staff Officer for the National Association of [college and university] Systems Heads (NASH) state K-16 network, with offices in Washington, D.C.

Also in June, President Meyerson appointed Barbara Bowie Wiesel (M.A., 1971; Ph.D. in American Civilization, 1973) to the senior administrative position of Acting Secretary of the University. She had served as Assistant Secretary of the University since August 1978 and had previously held the administrative position Assistant Dean for Advising in the School of Arts and Sciences. She was the first woman to serve as Acting Secretary of the University, but did not serve as a Statutory Officer of the University, which required formal nomination to and election by the Trustees. In 1987, after leaving Penn, Dr. Wiesel was named Director of Development for the School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University. In May 2001 she was appointed Associate Dean for Development at the Nitze School of Advanced International Studies of The Johns Hopkins University.

In September, Provost Vartan Gregorian appointed Joyce Randolph, B.A., M.A., Ph.D., to the senior staff position of Executive Assistant to the Provost. Dr. Randolph had previously held the administrative position of Assistant Dean for Advising in the School of Arts and Sciences. She was the first woman to serve as director of the Office of the Provost. In September 1983, Dr. Randolph was named Director of International Programs at Penn, a senior administrator position she continues to hold in 2001.

In December, the Trustees announced the formation of a Consultative Committee for the Selection of a President. The Committee was composed of thirteen members, including two women Trustees, Dr. Gloria Twine Chisum and Dr. Jacqueline Grennan Wexler, and one woman member of the senior standing faculty, Fay Ajzenberg-Selove, Professor of Physics and Chair of the Commission on Nuclear Physics of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics. They were the second, third, and fourth women at Penn to serve the University as members of a presidential search committee.

1980

In March, the Trustees elected Mary Anna Dye Meyers, B.A. (M.A., Ph.D. in American Civilization, 1976), to the senior administrative position of Secretary of the University. She was the second woman to serve as Secretary of the University and also the second woman to serve as a Statutory Officer of the University. Prior to accepting her appointment at Penn, Dr. Meyers had been Director of College Relations at Haverford College. Dr. Meyers served as Secretary of the University for ten years, before being named President of The Annenberg Foundation in St. Davids, Pennsylvania.

In April, undergraduate students elected Allison Elizabeth Accurso (A.B., August 1982) to the presidency of the Undergraduate Assembly. She was the first woman President of the UA, which had been founded in 1973.

The School of Dental Medicine promoted Virginia R. Park (D.D.S., 1942) from Assistant Professor of Operative Dentistry to Associate Professor of Restorative Dentistry. She was the second woman to earn tenure at the School of Dental Medicine and the first woman dentist to earn tenure in that School.

In May, the General Alumni Society elected Sara Spedden Senior (A.B., 1952) its President. She was the second woman to serve the General Alumni Society as its chief executive and the sixth woman to serve the University as an Alumni Trustee. She had previously served the University as President of the College of Women Alumnae Society and founding President of the Society of the College. She was also a 1980 recipient of the Alumni Award of Merit. In June 1980, she was elected a member of the Executive Committee of the Trustees, only the fourth woman to serve the University in that role. She was re-elected a member of the Executive Committee in 1981 and 1982. In June 1983, her three-year term as President of the General Alumni Society came to an end and she retired from the Board of Trustees.

1981

In June, the Trustees amended the Statutes, increasing the number of Young Alumni Trustees from two to three and changing the name of this class of Trustees to Recently Graduated Alumni Trustees.

In September, the Trustees elected Ruth Margaret Davis, Ph.D., an Associate Trustee of the University for the term of a three-year appointment to the Board of Overseers of the School of Engineering and Applied Science. She was then Assistant Secretary of Research and Applications at the U.S. Department of Energy. In subsequent years, Dr. Davis became President and C.E.O. of the Pymatuning Group, Inc., in Alexandria, Virginia. She was the first woman to serve as a member of the Board of Overseers for the School of Engineering and Applied Science and the first woman ever to serve in an oversight role at this School. In the years since 1981, Dr. Davis has regularly been re-elected to the Board, and in September 2001, continued to serve the University as a member of this Board of Overseers.

1982

In June, the Trustees elected Leonore Annenberg ( Hon. LL.D., 1985), former Chief of Protocol of the United States of America, and Susan Williams Catherwood, Chair of the Women's Committee of the University Museum, to five-year terms as Term Trustees of the University. They were the seventh and eighth women, respectively, to serve the University as Term Trustees. Both served the full five-year term as Term Trustees. In June 1987, Leonore Annenberg was elected a Life Trustee. She was the second woman to serve the University as a Life Trustee. In June 1988, she retired and was elected an Emeritus Trustee. She was the first woman to be accorded that honor. In June 1984, the Trustees elected Susan Williams Catherwood to a one-year term on the Executive Committee. She was the sixth woman to serve the University as a member of the Executive Committee. She was re-elected to the Executive Committee in 1985 and 1986. In June 1987 she was re-elected to a second five-year term as a Term Trustee and was also re-elected to the Executive Committee. She was re-elected to the Executive Committee each year thereafter and in June 1991 she was elected to a one-year term as one of two Vice Chairmen of the Board of Trustees. She was the third woman to serve as Vice Chair of the Trustees (Margaret Redfield Mainwaring had been the first, in 1984; Gloria Twine Chisum was the second, in 1988). In 1992 she was re-elected Vice Chair of the Trustees and has continued to be re-elected each year to the present time. In June 1992 she was elected a Charter Trustee. She was the fourth woman to serve the University as a Charter Trustee. In May 1993 she was appointed a member of the Consultative Committee to invite and review applications and nominations for President of the University. She was the fifth woman to serve the University as a member of a Presidential Search Committee. She continues to serve as a Charter Trustee and Vice Chair of the Executive Committee at the present time.

In May, the General Alumni Society elected Linda Camille White Hall (M.B.A., 1981), who was then a Supervisor of Cost Accounting at Philip Morris, U.S.A., to a three-year term as one of the Recently Graduated Alumni Trustees. She was the first woman to serve the University as a Recently Graduated Young Alumni Trustee. While a student at Penn, she had been President of the Black MBA Association, a Wharton Graduate Association representative, and a fellow of the Council for Opportunity in Graduate Management Education. As a Recently Graduated Alumni Trustee she served as a member of the Budget and Finance, Resources, and Student Life committees until January 1986, when her term concluded.

In December, President Hackney nominated and the Trustees elected Shelley Z. Green to the senior administrative position of General Counsel. She became the first woman to serve as General Counsel of the University and the third woman to serve as a Statutory Officer of the University. Ms. Green had been Acting General Counsel for four months prior to her appointment and had previously held the administrative positions of Assistant and Associate General Counsel. Prior to accepting a position at Penn, she had served as a legal advisor to the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Ms. Green continued as General Counsel for sixteen years, before submitting her resignation in December 1998.

1983

In August, President Hackney nominated and the Trustees elected Helen Bohen O'Bannon, B.A., M.A., to the senior administrative position of Senior Vice President. She became the first woman to serve as Senior Vice President of the University and the fourth woman to serve as a Statutory Officer of the University. Prior to accepting her appointment at Penn, she had held the position of Secretary of Public Welfare for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. She held the position of Senior Vice President until her death, after a long illness, in October 1988.

In December, Stephanie A. J. Dangel (A.B., 1984; B.S. in Econ., 1984; A.M., 1984) was named the first Penn woman recipient of a Rhodes Scholarship.

1984

In June, the Trustees elected Constance Elaine Clayton (Ed.D., 1981), Superintendent of the School District of Philadelphia, to a five-year term as one of the Term Trustees of the University. She was the ninth woman to serve the University as a Term Trustee. In June 1989, at the conclusion of her five-year term, the Trustees adopted a "Resolution of Appreciation" in her honor, commending her service on the Academic Policy and Student Life committees of the Board, as well as her continuing service as a Lecturer in the Graduate School of Education and as a member of the Marcus Foster Scholarship Fund Committee.

Also in June, the Trustees elected Margaret Redfield Mainwaring one of the two Vice Chairmen of the Board of Trustees. She was the first woman to serve the University as Vice Chair of the Trustees.

In September, President Hackney nominated and the Trustees elected Marna Cupp Whittington, B.A., M.S., Ph.D., to the senior administrative position of Vice President for Finance. She became the first woman to serve the University as Vice President for Finance and the fifth woman to serve as a Statutory Officer of the University. Prior to accepting her appointment at Penn, Dr. Whittington had held a series of senior administrative positions in the state government of Delaware. Between 1981 and 1984, she had served as Director of Administrative Services, Director of Budget, and Secretary of Finance for the State of Delaware. In December 1988, following the death of Helen Bohen O'Bannon, President Hackney nominated and the Trustees elected Dr. Whittington to the senior administrative position of Senior Vice President. In December 1991, President Hackney and the Trustees promoted her to Executive Vice President of the University. She continued in this position until September 1992, when she resigned to become Managing Partner of Miller, Anderson, & Sherrerd, an investment banking firm in West Conshohocken, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania. When Morgan Stanley Dean Witter acquired Miller Anderson & Sherrerd in 1996, she became Managing Director and Chief Operating Officer for Morgan Stanley & Co.'s Institutional Investment Management Division. She left Morgan Stanley in January 2001 and in June 2001 she was appointed President of Nicholas-Applegate Capital Management, a San Diego-based investment advisor firm.

1987

In May, the General Alumni Society elected Marlene Sue Arnold (Ph.D. in Anthropology, 1985), then an Assistant Professor of Anthropology at Millersville University, to a three-year term as one of the Recently Graduated Alumni Trustees. She was the second woman to serve the University as a Recently Graduated Young Alumni Trustee. Her term began in June 1987 and concluded in December 1989. While a student at Penn, she received a Fulbright-Hays grant for doctoral dissertation research in Greece. As a Recently Graduated Young Alumni Trustee, she served as a member of the External Affairs and University Responsibility committees.

In June, at the conclusion of her five-year term as a Term Trustee, the Trustees elected Leonore Annenberg a Life Trustee. She was the second woman to serve the University as a Life Trustee.

In September, President Hackney nominated and the Trustees elected Barbara Sale Butterfield, B.A., M.S. in Ed., Ph.D., to the senior administrative position of Vice President for Human Resources. She was the first woman to serve as Vice President for Human Resources and the sixth woman to serve as a Statutory Officer of the University. Prior to accepting her appointment at Penn, she was Director of Human Resources at Duke University. She served in that position for three and one-half years, resigning in April 1991 to become Vice President for Human Resources at Stanford University. In October 2000 she was elected Associate Vice President for Human Resources and Affirmative Action at the University of Michigan, effective February 2001.

In December, the General Alumni Society elected Regina Kutin Cohen (B.S. in Econ., 1986; B.A., magna cum laude, 1986), then an Assistant Marketing Manager for Money Magazine, to a three-year term as one of the Young Alumni Trustees, effective January 1988. She was the third woman to serve the University as a Recently Graduated Young Alumni Trustee. Her term began in January 1988 and concluded in December 1990. While a student at Penn, she was an advisor for Students Helping Students, the performance manager for the Penn Marching Band, tour guide for the Kite and Key Society, President of her Senior Class, and winner of the Gaylord P. Harnwell Senior Honor Award. As a Young Alumni Trustee, she served as a member of the Academic Policy, External Affairs, and Student life committees.

1988

In June, the Trustees adopted a "Resolution of Appreciation" to Leonore Annenberg for her service on the External Affairs Committee and elected her an Emeritus Trustee. She was the first woman to be accorded the honor of Emeritus Trustee.

Also in June, the Trustees elected Gloria Twine Chisum to a one-year term as one of the two Vice Chairmen of the Board. Dr. Chisum was the second woman to serve as Vice Chairman. Margaret Redfield Mainwaring, who had held that senior position since June 1984, declined to be re-nominated.

In October, the General Alumni Society elected Sara Spedden Senior (A.B., 1952), of Merion, Pennsylvania, to a five-year term as an Alumni Trustee. She was the tenth woman to serve as an Alumni Trustee and the first to serve twice as an Alumni Trustee. Her term began in January 1989 and concluded in December 1993. She had previously served as an Alumni Trustee from May 1980 through May 1983, when she was President of the General Alumni Society. In June 1990 she was elected a member of the Executive Committee of the Trustees, a Committee on which she had previously served from 1980 through 1983.

In October, at the mandatory conclusion of her service as a Term Trustee, the Trustees adopted a "Resolution of Appreciation" in honor of Margaret Redfield Mainwaring, commending her for her continuous service of fifteen years as a Trustee; for four years as Vice Chairman of the Board of Trustees; for eight years as a member of the Executive Committee of the Trustees; for seven years as Chairman of the Student Life Committee; and for nine years as Chairman of the Board of Overseers of the School of Nursing.

1989

In January, the Trustees elected Margaret Redfield Mainwaring an Emeritus Trustee. She was the second woman to be accorded that honor.

In May, the University appointed Kathleen Hall Jamieson, B.A., M.A., Ph.D., to the senior academic administrator position of Dean of the Annenberg School for Communication, effective 1 July. She was the first woman to be appointed Dean of this School and the eighth woman to serve as an academic Dean at Penn. Prior to accepting her appointment at Penn, she was the G.B. Dealey Professor of Communications at the University of Texas at Austin. In 1996, she was re-appointed Dean and continues to serve as Dean of the Annenberg School for Communication at the present time.

In June, the Trustees voted to amend the Statutes of the Trustees and eliminate Recently Graduated Alumni Trustees from the several classes of Trustees.

Also in June, the Trustees elected Carol Blum Einiger (A.B., 1970), who was Managing Director of Wasserstein, Perella & Company, in New York City, and Natalie Iris Salkind Koether (A.B., 1961; LL.B. 1965), then a partner in the law firm of Keck, Mahin, Cate and Koether, in New York City, to five-year terms as Term Trustees of the University. They were the tenth and eleventh women, respectively, to serve the University as Term Trustees. Carol Blum Einiger was re-elected a Term Trustee in 1994 and served until the expiration of her second five-year term in 1999. At the conclusion of her second term the Trustees adopted a "Resolution of Appreciation" in her honor, commending her for her service on the Audit and Compliance, Budget and Finance, External Affairs, and Student Life committees of the Trustees, as well as the Investment Board and Undergraduate Financial Aid Committee, and Agenda for Excellence Council. In June 1992 Natalie Iris Salkind Koether was elected a member of the Executive Committee of the Trustees. She was the seventh woman to serve the University as a member of the Executive Committee. She was re-elected to the Executive Committee in 1993 and 1994 and also re-elected a Term Trustee in 1994. In June 1999, at the conclusion of her second five-year term, she was elected a Charter Trustee. She continues to serve the University as a Charter Trustee at the present time.

In October, the General Alumni Society elected Sandra Ann DiGioia Williamson (A.B., 1963), Executive Director of the International Corporate Environment Initiative and Senior Lecturer in the Graduate School of Public and International Affairs at the University of Pittsburgh, to a five-year term as one of the Alumni Trustees of the University. She was the tenth woman to serve as an Alumni Trustee. Her term began in January 1990 and concluded in December 1994. In October 1994 her fellow Trustees adopted a "Resolution of Appreciation" in her honor, commending her for her service on the Budget and Finance and University Responsibility committees of the Trustees, as well as her service on the Trustees' Council of Penn Women and its Committee on Institutional Advancement for Women.

1990

In January, the Trustees elected Adele Kaplan Schaeffer (A.B., 1955), of Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania, to a five-year term as one of the Term Trustees of the University. She was the twelfth woman to serve as a Term Trustee. She had previously served as Vice President of the Executive Committee of the General Alumni Society and in 1987 had been honored with an Alumni Award of Merit. In 1989 she had been elected Chairman of the Board of Overseers of the School of Dental Medicine. She was re-elected a Term Trustee in 1995 and served until the expiration of her second term in 2000. In February 2000 the Trustees adopted a "Resolution of Election" in her honor, elected her an Emeritus Trustee, and commended for her service on the Academic Policy, Development, and External Affairs committees of the Trustees, as well as for her service as a member of the Board of Managers of the Wistar Institute. She was the fourth woman to be accorded the honor of Emeritus Trustee.

In October, the General Alumni Society elected Elsie Sterling Howard (A.B., 1968), of Miami Beach, Florida, to a five-year term as an Alumni Trustee. She was the eleventh woman to serve as an Alumni Trustee. Her term began in January 1991 and concluded in December 1995. In May 1995, however, six months before her five-year term was to conclude, the General Alumni Society elected her to a one-year term as its President. She was the third woman to serve the General Alumni Society as its President. The Society re-elected her President four times, in 1996, 1997, 1998, and 1999. In June 1995 she was elected a member of the Executive Committee of the Trustees. She was the eighth woman to serve the University as a member of the Executive Committee. In June 2000 the Trustees adopted a "Resolution of Appreciation" in her honor, which commended her service on the Executive, Development, External Affairs, Neighborhood Initiatives, Nominating, and Student Life committees of the Trustees, as well as for her service as a founder and chair of the Trustees' Council of Penn Women and as a member of the Board of Overseers of the Graduate School of Fine Arts and the Penn Athletics Advisory Board.

1991

In January, the Trustees elected Gloria Twine Chisum a Charter Trustee (the title "Charter" had replaced "Life" Trustee in June 1989, when the Trustees amended the Statutes of the Corporation). She was the third woman to serve the University as a Charter (or Life) Trustee.

Also in January, President Hackney nominated and the Trustees elected Barbara Ray Stevens, B.A., to the senior administrative position of Secretary of the University. She was the third woman to serve as Secretary of the University and seventh woman to serve as a Statutory Officer of the University. Prior to accepting her appointment at Penn, Ms. Stevens had been President of the New Haven [Connecticut] Downtown Council, a position she had taken in 1989, after five years as Assistant and subsequently Executive Assistant to President Sheldon Hackney. In December of 1991, President Hackney and the Trustees promoted Ms. Stevens to Vice President and Secretary of the University. She continued in that position for five years, until her resignation, effective June 1996.

In April, the University appointed Patricia Conway, B.A., M.A., M.S., to the senior academic administrator position of Dean of the Graduate School of Fine Arts, effective 1 July. She was the first woman to be appointed Dean of this School and the ninth woman to serve as an academic Dean at Penn. Prior to accepting her appointment at Penn, she was President of Kohn Pedersen Fox Conway Associates, an interior design firm in Philadelphia, and a founding partner of Kohn Pedersen Fox, Architects, also of Philadelphia. She served three and one-half years as Dean, before submitting her resignation, effective 30 September 1994. She returned to research and teaching at the University and continues to serve the University at the present time as Professor of Architecture in the Graduate School of Fine Arts and also, beginning in January 1997, with a secondary appointment as Professor of Real Estate in the Wharton School.

In June the Trustees elected Susan Williams Catherwood to a one-year term as one of the two Vice Chairmen of the Board of Trustees. She was the third woman to serve the University as Vice Chair of the Trustees. She has been re-elected Vice-Chairman in each year since 1991 and continues to serve the University as Vice Chair of the Trustees at the present time.

In September, the University appointed Rosemary A. W. Stevens, B.A., M.A., M.P.H., Ph.D., to the senior academic administrator position of Dean of the School of Arts and Sciences. She was the first woman to be appointed Dean of this School and the tenth woman to serve as an academic Dean at Penn. Prior to accepting this appointment, she was Professor and Chair of the Department of History and Sociology of Science at Penn. She served for five years as Dean, before submitting her resignation on 1 September 1996. She returned to research and teaching and continues to serve the University at the present time as the Stanley I. Sheerr Endowed Term Professor in the Department of History and Sociology of Science.

In October, the Trustees elected Vivian Weyerhaeuser Piasecki, of Haverford, Pennsylvania, to a five-year term as a Term Trustee of the University. She was the thirteenth woman to serve as a Term Trustee. In October 1996, at the end of her term, the Trustees adopted a "Resolution of Appreciation" in her honor, which commended her service on the Budget and Finance Committee and the Student Life Committee of the Trustees, as well as for her service as a member of the Trustee Board of the Health System, the Board of the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, the Board of Overseers of the School of Nursing, and the Advisory Board of the Institute on Aging.

In October, the General Alumni Society elected Norma Joan Peden Killebrew (A.B., 1961), of Baltimore, Maryland, to a five-year term as an Alumni Trustee. She was the twelfth woman to serve as an Alumni Trustee. Her term began in January 1992 and concluded in December 1996. In May 1993 she was appointed a member of the Consultative Committee to invite and review applications and nominations for President of the University. She was the sixth woman to serve the University as a member of a presidential search committee. In October 1996, at the end of her term, the Trustees adopted a "Resolution of Appreciation" in her honor, which commended her service on the Facilities and Campus Planning Committee and the Student Life Committee of the Trustees, as well as for her service as a member of the ad hoc Committee on Undergraduate Financial Aid and the Consultative Committee on the Presidential Search. It was also noted that in 1993-94 she provided important leadership through her participation in the Commission on Strengthening the Community.

Also in October, the General Alumni Society elected Andrea Louise Mitchell (A.B., 1967) to a five-year term as an Alumni Trustee. She was the thirteenth woman to serve as an Alumni Trustee. Her term began in January 1992 and concluded in December 1996. In June 1995 she was elected to a one-year term as a member of the Executive Committee of the Trustees. She was the ninth woman to serve the University as a member of the Executive Committee. She was been re-elected to the Executive Committee in June 1996 and has been re-elected in each subsequent year. In January 1997 the Trustees elected her to a five-year term as a Term Trustee. She continues to serve the University as a Term Trustee at the present time.

In December, President Hackney nominated and the Trustees elected Norma Marie Skrzypchak Lang, B.A., M.A., Ph.D., to the senior academic administrator position of Margaret Bond Simon Dean of the School of Nursing, effective March 1992. She was the fourth woman to be appointed Dean of this School and the eleventh woman to be named an academic dean at Penn. Prior to accepting her appointment, she was Dean of the School of Nursing at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. She served as Dean for eight and one-half years, until September 2000, when she retired from the deanship, but returned to an active faculty life in research and teaching. In returning to the faculty, she was named the first person to hold the Lillian S. Brunner Chair in Nursing. In June 2000, the Trustees adopted a "Resolution of Appreciation" in her honor, which commended her for the achievements of the School of Nursing under her leadership, particularly its leadership in federal research dollars from the National Institutes of Health and its top two ranking in the annual U.S. News & World Report survey of graduate schools in the United States. She continues to serve the University at the present time as the Lillian S. Brunner Professor in Medical-Surgical Nursing in the School of Nursing.

1992

In June, the Trustees elected Susan Williams Catherwood one of the Charter Trustees of the University. She was the fourth woman to serve the University as a Charter Trustee. She continues to serve the University as a Charter Trustee at the present time.

Also in June, the Trustees elected Judith Helaine Roth Berkowitz (B.S. in Ed., 1964), Chairman and General Manager of Jarby, Inc., in New York City, to a five-year term as a Term Trustee. She was the fourteenth woman to serve as a Term Trustee. In June 1997, she was re-elected to a second five-year term as a Term Trustee and continues to serve the University as a Term Trustee at the present time.

1993

In March, President Hackney nominated and the Trustees elected Virginia B. Clark to the senior administrative position of Vice President for Development and Alumni Relations, effective 1 July 1993. She was the first woman to serve the University as Vice President for Development and Alumni Relations and the eighth woman to serve as a Statutory Officer of the University. Ms. Clark had been Associate Vice President for Development since July 1992 and had previously held a series of increasingly responsible positions in the Wharton School, culminating in the senior administrative position of Associate Dean for External Relations. Ms. Clark continues to serve the University as Vice President for Development and Alumni Relations at the present time.

Also in March, President Hackney nominated and the Trustees elected Janet S. Hale, B.A., M.P.A., to the senior administrative position of Executive Vice President, effective immediately. She was the second woman to serve the University as Executive Vice President and the ninth woman to serve as a Statutory Officer of the University. Prior to accepting her appointment at Penn, she was Associate Director for Economics and Government in the Office of Management and Budget in Washington, D.C. She served as Executive Vice President at Penn only until August 1994. She later returned to Washington, D.C. and was appointed Associate Administrator for Finance for the U.S. House of Representatives. In May 2001, President George W. Bush nominated Janet Hale as the Assistant Secretary for Management and Budget in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Her nomination is pending at the present time.

In April, the Trustees appointed Claire Muriel Mintzer Fagin, R.N., Ph.D., FAAN (Hon. LL.D., 1994), Dean Emerita and Leadership Professor in the School of Nursing, to a one-year term as Interim President and Chief Executive of the University of Pennsylvania. She was the first woman to serve as chief executive of the University. She served as Interim President from July 1993 until July 1994. She continues affiliated with the University at the present time as Professor Emeritus in the School of Nursing.

In May, the Trustees formed a Consultative Committee to invite and review applications and nominations for President of the University. The Committee was composed of nineteen members, including three women Trustees, Susan Williams Catherwood, Gloria Twine Chisum, and Norma Peden Killebrew; two women members of the senior standing faculty, Drew Gilpin Faust, Annenberg Professor of History, and Barbara J. Lowery, Professor of Nursing; and three women students, Jun Suk Bang, Class of 1994 in the College; Susan Laura Garfinkel, a graduate student in the School of Arts and Sciences; and Sharon Allegra Molinoff, Class of 1994 in the Wharton School. Trustees Catherwood and Killebrew, Professors Faust and Lowery, and students Bang, Garfinkel, and Molinoff were the fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth, tenth, and eleventh women to serve the University as members of a presidential search committee.

In May, the University appointed Nancy H. Hornberger, B.A., M.A., B.Ed., Ph.D., to the senior academic administrator position of Acting Dean of the Graduate School of Education. She was the first woman to be appointed Acting Dean of this School and the twelfth woman to serve as an academic Dean at Penn. Prior to accepting this appointment, she was Associate Professor of Education in the Graduate School of Education and Director of the School's Graduate Programs in Educational Linguistics, Intercultural Communication, and the Teaching of English to Speakers of Other Languages. She served as Acting Dean for two years, until the appointment of a permanent successor became effective in July 1995. She continues to serve the University at the present time as Goldie Anna Professor in the Language in Education Division and Director of the Educational Linguistics Program of the Graduate School of Education.

In December, the Trustees elected Judith Seitz Rodin (A.B., 1966), M.A., Ph.D., Provost of Yale University, the seventh President and Chief Executive of the University of Pennsylvania. She is the first alumna to serve as President of Penn and the first woman to serve as President of an Ivy League institution. She was the tenth woman to serve as a Statutory Officer of the University and she continues to serve the University as President at the present time.

The Board of Trustees that elected Dr. Rodin to the presidency included fourteen women: Judith Roth Berkowitz (A.B., 1964), Term Trustee; Susan Williams Catherwood, Charter Trustee and Vice Chairman; Gloria Twine Chisum, B.S., M.S. (Ph.D. in Psychology, 1960; Hon. LL.D., 1994), Charter Trustee and Vice Chairman; Carol Blum Einiger (A.B., 1970), Term Trustee; Elsie Sterling Howard (A.B., 1968), Alumni Trustee; Norma Joan Peden Killebrew (A.B., 1961), Alumni Trustee; Natalie Iris Salkind Koether (A.B., 1961; LL.B., 1965), Term Trustee; Andrea Louise Mitchell (A.B., 1967), Alumni Trustee; Vivian Weyerhaeuser Piasecki, Term Trustee; Adele Kaplan Schaeffer (A.B., 1955), Term Trustee; Sandra Ann DiGioia Williamson (A.B., 1963), Alumni Trustee. In addition, three women were Emeritae Trustees: Leonore Annenberg (Hon. LL.D. 1985); Margaret Redfield Mainwaring (B.S. in Ed., 1947; Hon. LL.D. 1985); and Jacqueline Grennan Wexler (Hon. LL.D. 1979).

1994

In September, President Rodin nominated and the Trustees elected Carol Ruth Scheman, B.A., M.A., to the senior administrative position of Vice President for Government and Community Relations, effective 15 September 1994. Prior to accepting her appointment at Penn, she was Deputy Commissioner for External Affairs at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in Washington, D.C. She was the first woman to serve the University as Vice President for Government and Community Relations and the eleventh woman to serve as a Statutory Officer of the University. She continues to serve the University as Vice President for Government, Community, and Public Affairs at the present time.

In October, the General Alumni Society elected Mary Ann Baker Greenawalt (A.B., 1962), President of B & B Specialty Foods, and Marjorie May Osterlund Rendell (A.B., 1969), then a Judge of the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania, to five-year terms as Alumni Trustees. Their terms began in January 1995 and concluded in December 1999. They were the fourteenth and fifteenth women to be elected Alumni Trustees. Mary Ann Greenawalt was President of the Class of 1962, a Director of the Detroit Alumni Club, and the recipient of the Alumni Award of Merit in 1992. Marjorie Osterlund Rendell had been a partner in the Philadelphia law firm of Duane, Morris & Heckscher prior to her appointment to the Federal bench. In October 1999, at the end of their terms, the Trustees took two actions. They adopted a "Resolution of Appreciation" in honor of Mary Ann Greenawalt, commending her service on the Facilities and Campus Planning Committee and the Development, Student Life, and University Responsibility Committee of the Trustees, as well as for her service as a member of the Agenda for Excellence Council, as a member of the Board of Overseers for the School of Social Work, and as a member of the Trustees' Council of Penn Women. The Trustees also elected Judge Rendell to a five-year term as a Term Trustee. She was the eighteenth woman to be elected a Term Trustee. She continues to serve the University as a Term Trustee at the present time.

Also in October, the Trustees amended the Statutes to establish a new class of Trustees, to be known as "Commonwealth Trustees," to total four in number, and to be appointed by four senior elected officers of the Pennsylvania General Assembly. The Commonwealth Trustees are to be "nonelected officials."

1995

In January, Lynda Anne Barness (M.A., 1972), President of the Barness Organization, joined the Trustees as a Commonwealth Trustee. She was the first woman to serve the University as a Commonwealth Trustee and continues as a Commonwealth Trustee at the present time.

In January, the University appointed Susan H. Fuhrman, B.A., M.A., Ph.D., to the senior academic administrator position of Dean of the Graduate School of Education, effective 1 July. She was the first woman to be appointed Dean of this School and the thirteenth woman to serve as an academic Dean at Penn. Prior to accepting her appointment at Penn, she was Professor of Education Policy in the Eagleton Institute of Politics at Rutgers University and Chair of the Institute's Consortium for Policy Research in Education. She continues to serve the University at the present time as Dean and George and Diane Weiss Professor of Education in the Educational Leadership Division of the Graduate School of Education.

1996

In October, the General Alumni Society elected Pamela Prudence Petre Reis (A.B., 1970), of Rolling Hills, California, to a five-year term as an Alumni Trustee. Her term began in January 1997 and will conclude in December 2001. She was the sixteenth woman to serve as an Alumni Trustee and continues to serve the University as an Alumni Trustee at the present time.

1997

In January, the Trustees elected Carolyn Ann Hoff Lynch (B.S. in P.T., 1968), President of The Lynch Foundation, to a five-year term as a Term Trustee. She was the sixteenth woman to be elected a Term Trustee and she continues to serve the University as a Term Trustee at the present time.

In June, the Trustees elected Barbara Jean Wertman Lowery, R.N., B.S.N., (M.S.N., 1968), Ed.D., to the senior administrative position of Interim Secretary of the University. She was the fifth woman to serve as Secretary of the University and the twelfth woman to serve as a Statutory Officer of the University. Prior to accepting this appointment, Professor Lowery was both a member of the senior standing faculty in the School of Nursing, holding the named professorship of Independence Foundation Professor of Nursing and a senior academic administrator, holding the position of Associate Provost of the University. She had also previously served the University as Ombudsman (1984-86) and as Chair of the Faculty Senate (1994-95). In 1979 she was the recipient of the Lindback Award for Distinguished Teaching. She served as Interim Secretary of the University for nine months, until March 1998. She continues to serve the University at the present time as Associate Provost and Independence Foundation Professor of Nursing.

In September, the Trustees elected Kathryn Joanne Engebretson, B.A., M.S. (M.B.A., 1983; Ph.D., 1996), to the senior administrative position of Vice President for Finance. She was the second woman to serve the University as Vice President for Finance and the thirteenth woman to serve as a Statutory Officer of the University. Prior to accepting her appointment at Penn, Dr. Engebretson held the position of Principal in the investment banking firm of Miller Anderson & Sherrerd in West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania. From 1992 to 1994, she had held the position of City Treasurer of Philadelphia. Dr. Engebretson served the University as Vice President for Finance for twenty-eight months, until December 1999. She left Penn to accept the position of Chief Financial Officer of BET.com, an internet start-up venture aimed at attracting African Americans to the internet.

In November, the Trustees elected Madlyn Gay Kornberg Abramson (B.S. in Ed., 1957; M.S. in Ed., 1960), of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and Jupiter, Florida, to a five-year term as a Term Trustee. She was the seventeenth woman to be elected a Term Trustee and she continues to serve the University as a Term Trustee at the present time.

1998

In February, the Trustees elected Rosemary McManus, B.A., M.B.A., to the senior administrative position of Secretary of the University, effective 16 March. Prior to accepting this appointment, Ms. McManus was Vice President for Housing Impact at Fannie Mae, the Congressionally-chartered, shareholder-owned company that is the nation's largest source of funds for home mortgages. She was the sixth woman to serve as Secretary of the University and the fourteenth woman to serve as a Statutory Officer of the University. She served as Secretary of the University for two and one-half years before submitting her resignation, effective September 2000.

2000

In June, Provost Robert Barchi announced the appointment of Neville Earl Strumpf, R.N., B.S.N., M.S.N., Ph.D., FAAN, to the senior academic administrator position of Interim Dean of the School of Nursing, effective 1 September. Prior to accepting this appointment, she was Edith Clemmer Steinbright Professor in Gerontology and Director of the Center for Gerontologic Nursing Science in the School of Nursing. She continues to serve the University at the present time as Interim Dean and Edith Clemmer Steinbright Professor in Gerontology.

In September, the Trustees elected Leslie Laird Kruhly, B.A., M.A., to the senior administrative position of Secretary of the University. Prior to accepting this appointment, Ms. Kruhly was Associate Director of Development and Special Events for the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. She had previously held a series of increasingly responsible positions at National Association for Advancement in the Arts, culminating in the position of Ethexecutive Vice President for External Affairs. She is the seventh woman to serve as Secretary of the University and the fifteenth woman to serve as a Statutory Officer of the University. Ms. Kruhly continues in the position of Secretary of the University at the present time.

In October, the General Alumni Society elected Sylvia Marie Miller Rhone (B.S. in Econ., 1974), Chairman and CEO of Elektra Entertainment Group, to a five-year term as an Alumni Trustee. Her term began in January 2001 and will conclude in December 2005. She was the seventeenth woman to be elected an Alumni Trustee and she continues to the serve the University as an Alumni Trustee at the present time.

2004

On January 27, 2004, Trustee Chair James Riepe announced the selection of Dr. Amy Gutmann, then Provost of Princeton University, as the eighth President and Chief Executive of the University of Pennsylvania; the University Trustees formally approved her appointment at their February 20th meeting. When Dr. Gutmann took office on July 1, 2004, she became the second woman president of the University of Pennsylvania. Official inauguration ceremonies took place on October 15, 2004.

 

Women Trustees (and their individual distinctions in Penn history):

This list is current to 2001

 

SEARCH | HOME


Collection Guides | Primary Documents | Historical Features | Doing Research | Contact us
University Archives | University Records Center | Penn homepage